Dose-dependent thrombus resolution due to oral plaminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-I inhibition with tiplaxtinin in a rat stenosis model of venous thrombosis
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate a small-molecule PAI-1 inhibitor (PAI-039; tiplaxtinin) in a rodent stenosis model of venous thrombosis in a two-phase experiment. Phase 1 determined the efficacy of tiplaxtinin against Lovenox (LOV), while phase 2 determined the dose-dependent efficacy. For both phases, drug treatment began 24 hours after surgically induced venous thrombosis and continued for four days. Phase 1 animals (n = 24) receiving low-dose (LD; 1 mg/kg oral gavage) PAI-1 inhibitor demonstrated a 52% decrease in thrombus weight (TW) versus controls (p < 0.05) with significant reductions in active plasma PAI-1, while the high-dose (HD; 10 mg/kg oral gavage) group demonstrated a 23% reduction in TW versus controls. Animals treated subcutaneously with LOV (3 mg/kg) showed a 39% decrease in TW versus controls (p < 0.05). Coagulation tests (aPTT and TCT) were significantly different in LOV compared to PAI-1 inhibitor groups. PAI-039 treatment was also associated with significantly increased return of inferior vena cava blood flow four days post-thrombosis versus controls (p < 0.05). In phase 2 (n = 30), TW was reduced from the 0.5 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg experimental groups, with the 10 mg/kg group demonstrating a paradoxical increase. The 5 mg/kg group showed statistically significant decreases in TW versus controls after four treatment days (p < 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate dose related effects of PAI-039 on increasing thrombus resolution and inferior vena cava blood flow without adverse effects on anti-coagulation in a rat stenosis model of venous thrombosis.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Sanjiv M Baxi, Dec 14, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Despite anticoagulation therapy, up to one-half of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Improving the long-term outcome of DVT patients at risk for PTS will therefore require new approaches. Here we investigate the effects of statins-lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties-in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice). Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi) compared similarly to the therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and macrophages, and these effects were most notable in the earlier timepoints after DVT formation. In addition, statins reduced DVT-induced vein wall scarring by 50% durably up to day 21 in stasis VT, as shown by polarized light microscopy of picrosirius red-stained vein wall collagen. The overall results demonstrate that statins improve VT resolution via profibrinolytic, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and anti-vein wall scarring effects. Statins may therefore offer a new pharmacotherapeutic approach to improve DVT resolution and to reduce the post-thrombotic syndrome, particularly in subjects who are ineligible for anticoagulation therapy.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116621. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116621 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cydonia Oblonga Miller (COM) is traditionally used in Uyghur medicine for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The present study is designed to explore the effects of COM extracts on models and markers of thrombosis and related biomarkers. 20, 40, 80mg/kg/day COM aqueous extracts and 5mg/kg/day aspirin, orally for 14 days were compared to untreated controls in mice on bleeding and clotting times, using the tail cutting and glass slide methods and for death rates in collagen-epinephrine pulmonary thrombosis, thrombolysis in vitro and euglobulin lysis time (ELT). In rats, common carotid artery FeCl3-induced thrombus and inferior vena cava thrombosis occlusion time, plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandine F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) were measured. Compared to controls, COM extracts dose-dependently prolonged bleeding by 2.17, 2.78 and 3.63 times, vs. aspirin 2.58, and the clotting time by 1.44, 2.47 and 2.48 times, vs. aspirin 1.91. COM reduced pulmonary embolus mortality by 27, 40 and 53%, vs. 47% for aspirin. COM dose-dependently increased thrombolysis by 45, 55 and 63%, vs. 56% for aspirin, and shortened ELT to 71, 61 and 43%, vs. 43% for aspirin. In rats, venous occlusion time was prolonged. Arterial and venous thrombus weights were dose-dependently reduced in COM groups. TXB2 decreased and 6-keto-PGF1α increased with COM and aspirin, with an association between 6-keto-PGF1α/TXB2 and arterial or venous thrombus weight for all products, and for occlusion time with COM but not for aspirin. We confirm the experimental effects of COM on hemostasis and thrombosis. Further exploration of putative clinical effects appear justified.Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.03.056 · 2.94 Impact Factor
Chapter: Chapter 7 Seven-membered ringsProgress in Heterocyclic Chemistry, 01/2003: pages 320-334;