Bronchoalveolar lavage MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in preschool wheezers and their relationship to persistent wheeze.
ABSTRACT Atopic preschool children are more likely to develop persistent wheezing, which could be a consequence of early airway remodeling. Protease-antiprotease balance between MMP-9 and its cognate inhibitor TIMP-1 may be involved in this process. Our hypothesis was that atopic wheezing preschool children would have an imbalance of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL from 52 preschool wheezers was compared with 14 controls without wheeze. A subgroup completed an International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood symptom questionnaire 2 y later. Molar ratios of MMP-9/TIMP-1 were higher in wheezy children (p < 0.001; median 4.0%, range 0-8.7) than controls (0.6%, 0-1.8), and showed an excess of TIMP-1 in the airway. BAL TIMP-1 was raised in children with persistent wheezing (p = 0.028; 34.4 ng/mL, 9.1-93.1 compared with 10.6 ng/mL 6.1-18.6), as was serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (p = 0.027). The absolute concentration of TIMP-1 in the airway, rather than its molar ratio with MMP-9, was associated with persistent wheezing. The processes involved with airway remodeling are complex but excess TIMP-1 may impede matrix protein turnover and thereby contribute to persistent changes in airway structure and wheezing.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Michel Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, May 16, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The main goal of the paper was to assess the pattern of risk factors having an impact on the onset of early wheezing phenotypes in the birth cohort of 468 two-year olds and to investigate the severity of respiratory illness in the two-year olds in relation to both wheezing phenotypes, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and personal PM(2.5) exposure over pregnancy period (fine particulate matter). The secondary goal of the paper was to assess possible association of early persistent wheezing with the length of the baby at birth. Pregnant women were recruited from ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Only women 18-35 years of age, who claimed to be non-smokers, with singleton pregnancies, without illicit drug use and HIV infection, free from chronic diseases were eligible for the study. In the statistical analysis of respiratory health of children multinomial logistic regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used. Approximately one third of the children in the study sample experienced wheezing in the first 2 years of life and in about two third of cases (67%) the symptom developed already in the first year of life. The early wheezing was easily reversible and in about 70% of infants with wheezing the symptom receded in the second year of life. The adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) of persistent wheezing increased with maternal atopy (RRR=3.05; 95%CI: 1.30-7.15), older siblings (RRR=3.05; 95%CI: 1.67-5.58) and prenatal ETS exposure (RRR=1.13; 95%CI: 1.04-1.23), but was inversely associated with the length of baby at birth (RRR=0.88; 95%CI: 0.76-1.01). The adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) of coughing, difficult breathing, runny/stuffy nose and pharyngitis/tonsillitis in wheezers were much higher than that observed among non-wheezers and significantly depended on prenatal PM(2.5) exposure, older siblings and maternal atopy. The study shows a clear inverse association between maternal age or maternal education and respiratory illnesses and calls for more research efforts aiming at the explanation of factors hidden behind proxy measures of quality of maternal care of babies. The data support the hypothesis that burden of respiratory symptoms in early childhood and possibly in later life may be programmed already in prenatal period when the respiratory system is completing its growth and maturation.Environment international 05/2009; 35(6):877-84. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2009.03.004 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe a prospective classification for preschool wheezers according to temporal symptom pattern, and summarize findings relating to the management of viral wheeze and the use of short-term therapy for intermittent severe wheeze. Phenotypes defined from cohort studies should only be applied retrospectively at school age. A new classification that can be applied prospectively is discussed. The importance of early rhinovirus-induced wheezing as a risk factor for asthma has become apparent. However, there is no benefit from short-course oral steroids for acute viral wheeze in the majority of cases. There is conflicting evidence for the role of intermittent montelukast or inhaled steroids in the treatment of acute, intermittent wheeze. A link between reduced vitamin D intake during pregnancy and increased preschool wheeze in offspring has emerged, suggesting a potential role for vitamin D supplementation in primary prevention. On the basis of current evidence, a trial of bronchodilators is first-line therapy for viral wheeze, and maintenance montelukast or inhaled steroids may be considered in preschool wheezers with persistent symptoms and risk factors for future asthma. No disease-modifying therapies are available. New therapeutic options for preschool wheezing disorders are desperately needed.Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 05/2009; 9(2):141-5. DOI:10.1097/ACI.0b013e3283292230 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between pro-inflammatory and pro-remodeling mediators and severity and control of asthma in children, the levels of IL-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1 in induced sputum supernatants, the number of sputum eosinophils, as well as FeNO, were investigated in 35 asthmatic children, 12 with intermittent (IA) and 23 with moderate asthma (MA), and 9 controls (C). The patients with asthma were followed for 1 yr and sputum was obtained twice during the follow-up. Biomarker levels were correlated with the number of exacerbations. We found that IL-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and the numbers of eosinophils in induced sputum, as well as FeNO, were increased in children with IA and MA in comparison to C. The ongoing inflammation was confirmed by increased nuclear p65 NF-kappaB subunit localization in sputum cells. In MA, FeNO measurements, sputum eosinophils and IL-8 levels, positively correlated with the occurrence of disease exacerbations during a 1-yr follow-up. According to FeNO, sputum eosinophils and IL-8 sputum concentrations, and the number of exacerbations, two distinct phenotypes of MA were identified. This study shows that the presence of bronchial inflammation is detectable in the airways of some IA, as well as in the airways of MA, despite the regular ICS treatment. This study also proposes the need to perform large prospective studies to confirm the importance of measuring specific biomarkers in induced sputum, concomitantly to FeNO analyses, to assess sub-clinical airway inflammation and disease control in children with asthma.Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 09/2009; 20(8):780-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00945.x · 3.86 Impact Factor