Advances in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
Current opinion in oncology (Impact Factor: 3.76). 06/2008; 20(3):264-9. DOI: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e3282fad846
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognosis is related to its potential locoregional invasion and metastatic spread. Among prognostic factors, initial tumor-node-metastasis stage is the main one, besides other biological parameters. Worldwide development of positron emission tomography imaging is changing modalities of staging. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy represents one of the most recent advances in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, besides intensity-modulated radiation therapy. This review updates these recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Recent publications have shown the superiority of fused positron emission tomography/computed tomography over positron emission tomography alone and conventional imaging to do an accurate staging and to impact on patient management. Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA load may be a useful prognostic marker in endemic regions. Recent meta-analysis confirmed the superiority of concurrent chemoradiotherapy to radiotherapy alone. Previous publications have shown that induction chemotherapy with new agents might be promising. Data demonstrating targeted therapies efficacy in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma are limited to date.
Positron emission tomography-computed tomography is replacing conventional imaging in the initial M staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Its usefulness in response evaluation after therapy and its place in the follow-up need to be prospectively evaluated. Cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy is now the standard treatment for locally advanced patients. However, incidence of relapses remains high, and new multimodal therapy is needed.

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    ABSTRACT: The Y-Box-binding protein-1, a member of the cold-shock domain DNA- and RNA-binding protein superfamily, is known to mediate chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Y-Box-binding protein-1 in nasopharyngeal cancer in vitro and in tumor tissue samples as well as analyze the clinicopathological significance of Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression in nasopharyngeal cancer, in particular as a predictor of outcome after treatment. The Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression profile was evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels in poorly differentiated CNE-2 nasopharyngeal cancer cells by real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression in 143 nasopharyngeal cancer specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters. Y-Box-binding protein-1 mRNA and protein were found to be expressed in CNE-2 nasopharyngeal cancer cells in vitro. Of 143 patient tissue sections, 137 (96%) were stained positive for the Y-Box-binding protein-1 protein. Y-Box-binding protein-1 immunostaining was observed to be predominantly cytoplasmic. A higher recurrence of nasopharyngeal cancer was found in patients whose tissues had increased Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression (P<0.001). The Cox proportionate hazard regression model also established that high Y-Box-binding protein-1 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with increased risk (2.13 times) of recurrence as compared to low Y-Box-binding protein-1 immunoreactivity (P=0.01). Within groups of patients treated by radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, recurrent cases had significantly higher Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression than nonrecurrent cases (P<0.001 and P=0.0035, respectively). These data suggest that Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression has clinicopathological significance with potential as a predictive marker of recurrence in nasopharyngeal cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
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