Article

Inflammatory responses of endothelial cells experiencing reduction in flow after conditioning by shear stress

Division of Medical Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, UK.
Journal of Cellular Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.87). 09/2008; 216(3):732-41. DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21457
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exposure of endothelial cells (EC) to shear stress reduces their response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We tested how shear-conditioned EC responded to reduction in flow, either by spontaneously binding leukocytes, or by increasing sensitivity to TNF. Human umbilical vein EC were exposed to shear stress of 2.0 Pa (20 dyn/cm(2)) for 24 h. Shear was then reduced to stasis (30 sec perfusion each hour to exchange medium) or 0.003 Pa (creeping flow). At chosen times, neutrophils were perfused over the EC at 0.1 Pa (effective reperfusion). EC developed an ability to capture flowing neutrophils that lasted from 1 to 3 h after flow reduction, which was reduced by antibody against P-selectin or pre-treatment of EC with an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase. Adhesion of neutrophils to TNF-treated EC was greatly suppressed by shear-conditioning, remained suppressed immediately after cessation of flow and then took 48 h to approach the level in static cultures. Interestingly, the response to TNF remained suppressed in cultures switched to creeping flow. Gene array analysis confirmed that differently recovered cells had separate phenotypes. Thus, an acute response of EC to reduction in shear may contribute to leukocyte recruitment, along with hypoxia, in ischaemia and reperfusion. Prolonged cessation of flow may increase the sensitivity of EC to inflammatory stimuli, but this effect may be suppressed by residual flow.

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