Genetic influences on smoking cessation and relapse in pregnant women
ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking during pregnancy continues to be a significant public health concern. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with low birth weight (<2500 g), fetal growth restriction, placental problems, pre-term delivery and spontaneous abortion. Mothers who smoke during pregnancy are twice as likely to give birth to low birth weight infants, and smoking during pregnancy is estimated to be responsible for 20-30% of all low birth weight infants. Smoking during pregnancy not only affects placental function, thus causing obstetrical complications, but nicotine also crosses the placenta and acts as a neuroteratogen. This in turn, elevates the risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and has also been found to be negatively associated with long-term consequences on offspring behaviour. In addition, smoking has negative long-term health consequences for both mother and child, including respiratory conditions, cancer and cardiovascular problems. This review provides insight into the genetic influences on smoking behaviour in pregnant women. In particular, the roles of genes in the neurotransmitter pathways are highlighted. It also emphasises the need for further research in this area, and provides rationale for the importance of focusing on pregnant women who are highly motivated to quit when researching smoking behaviours in women.
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ABSTRACT: Catechol-O-methyltransferease (COMT) metabolizes prefrontal cortex dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter involved in executive behavior; the Val158Met genotype has been linked to executive dysfunction, which might increase sexual risk behaviors favoring HIV transmission. Main and interaction effects of COMT genotype and executive functioning on sexual risk behavior were examined. 192 sexually active nonmonogamous men completed a sexual behavior questionnaire, executive functioning tests, and were genotyped using blood-derived DNA. Main effects for executive dysfunction but not COMT on number of sexual partners were observed. A COMT x executive dysfunction interaction was found for number of sexual partners and insertive anal sex, significant for carriers of the Met/Met and to a lesser extent Val/Met genotypes but not Val/Val carriers. In the context of HIV and methamphetamine dependence, dopaminergic overactivity in prefrontal cortex conferred by the Met/Met genotype appears to result in a liability for executive dysfunction and potentially associated risky sexual behavior.Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 01/2010; 2010:678648. DOI:10.1155/2010/678648
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ABSTRACT: Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, 2008. Kalunga é um dos remanescentes de quilombo mais importante histórica e numericamente da região Centro-Oeste brasileira. Localiza-se na zona rural do nordeste do estado de Goiás e sua população é formada por descendentes de escravos que se organizam atualmente em subcomunidades por todo o seu território, sem a presença de isolamento geográfico entre elas. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever os aspectos reprodutivos das mulheres kalungas e avaliar a possível influência de marcadores genéticos (Haptoglobina, Catalase, HLA-G 14pb e HLA-G G*0105N) sobre esses resultados. Kalunga apresenta uma estrutura populacional semelhante às demais áreas rurais do Brasil com o predomínio de indivíduos jovens, porém sua relação homem/mulher está semelhante a de áreas urbanas (0,88). A taxa de fecundidade de 5,51 é quase duas vezes a calculada para o Brasil. A maioria das mulheres tem o primeiro filho antes dos 21 anos e diversas gestações ultrapassam os 40 anos de idade materna, sendo o intervalo entre as gestações cerca de de 32 meses. As idades de menarca e menopausa estão dentro do previsto para outras regiões. Apenas 10% das mulheres utilizam qualquer tipo de método contraceptivo e aproximadamente 43% da população passou pelo processo de laqueadura. As freqüências gênicas e genotípicas de todos os marcadores analisados encontram-se dentro do descrito pela literatura, com a ressalva de que G*0105N possui freqüência mais elevada em populações afro-derivadas. Apenas a haptoglobina não se apresentou em Equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (p=0,002) e indicou diferenciação genética entre as populações com e sem aborto (p=0,003) e mulheres com mais e menos de cinco filhos (p=0,044). A população Kalunga possui características bem peculiares ora assemelhando-se a populações urbanas e ora a populações rurais. Quando analisado de forma geral, este quilombo possui uma estrutura muito semelhante aos demais remanescentes de quilombos descritos na literatura, assim como à população rural brasileira. O aspecto significante das análises com os marcadores genéticos foi sugerir uma possível associação dos polimorfismos da haptoglobina com a ocorrência de abortos e o número de gestações. _______________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT Kalunga is one of the most historically and numerically important quilombo’s reminiscent of the Brazilian center-west region. It is located at the rural zone in the northeast of Goiás state end its population is formed by slaves’ descendents that organize themselves in subcommunities all over the territory without geographic isolation. The aims of this work are show the reproductive aspects of the Kalunga’s women and try to find possible influences of genetic markers (Haptoglobin, Catalase, HLA-G 14pb e HLA-G G*0105N) in these results. Kalunga has a populational structure similar to Brazilians’ rural zones, with predominance of young people, except the sex ratio that is nearly of the urban areas (0,88). The fecundity rate of 5,51 is almost twice of the Brazilian one. Most of the women have the first baby before 21 years old and a lot of gestations occurs over 40, being the space between them nearly 32 months. The years of menarche and menopause are in concordance with the literature data in other regions. Only 10% of women use any kind of contraceptive and around 43% of the female population did tubal ligation. The genotypic and genic frequencies of all markers are in conformity with the literature except G*0105N that has higher frequencies in afro-derived populations. Only the haptoglobin did not fulfill the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p=0,002) and shows genetic differences between women who had and had not abortions (p=0,003) and women with more and less than five pregnancies (p=0,044). The Kalunga population has characteristics very singulars, sometimes being similar to urban populations and sometimes like rural communities. When analysed in general, this quilombo has a similar structure to other reminiscents described in the literature, as the rural population of Brazil. The significant aspect of the genetic markers analysis was to suggest a possible association between haptoglobin polymorphisms, abortion and number of pregnancies.
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ABSTRACT: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time in their lives, but some pregnant women continue to smoke. A recent genome-wide association study demonstrated an association between a common polymorphism (rs1051730) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) and both smoking quantity and nicotine dependence. We aimed to test whether the same polymorphism that predisposes to greater cigarette consumption would also reduce the likelihood of smoking cessation in pregnancy. We studied 7845 pregnant women of European descent from the South-West of England. Using 2474 women who smoked regularly immediately pre-pregnancy, we analysed the association between the rs1051730 risk allele and both smoking cessation during pregnancy and smoking quantity. Each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 1.27-fold higher odds (95% CI 1.11-1.45) of continued smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.0006). Adjustment for pre-pregnancy smoking quantity weakened, but did not remove this association [odds ratio (OR) 1.20 (95% CI 1.03-1.39); P = 0.018]. The same risk allele was also associated with heavier smoking before pregnancy and in the first, but not the last, trimester [OR for smoking 10+ cigarettes/day versus 1-9/day in first trimester = 1.30 (95% CI 1.13-1.50); P = 0.0003]. To conclude, we have found strong evidence of association between the rs1051730 variant and an increased likelihood of continued smoking in pregnancy and have confirmed the previously observed association with smoking quantity. Our data support the role of genetic factors in influencing smoking cessation during pregnancy.Human Molecular Genetics 06/2009; 18(15):2922-7. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddp216 · 6.68 Impact Factor