Microarray mapping of transposon insertions can be used to quantify the relative abundance of different transposon mutants within a complex pool after exposure to selective pressure. The transposon site hybridization (TraSH) method applies this strategy to the study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can be adapted to the study of other microorganisms. This chapter describes the methods used to mutagenize mycobacteria with transposons, extract genomic DNA, amplify genomic DNA adjacent to transposon ends using polymerase chain reaction and T7 transcription, and synthesize labeled cDNA. It also describes methods used to construct an appropriate microarray, hybridize labeled cDNA, and analyze the microarray data. Important considerations involved in the experimental design of the selective pressure, the design of the microarray, and the statistical analysis of collected data are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate intracellular pathogen that infects many ruminant species. The acquisition of foreign genes via horizontal gene transfer has been postulated to contribute to its pathogenesis, as these genetic elements are absent from its putative ancestor, M. avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH), an environmental organism with lesser pathogenicity. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of MAP transposon libraries were analyzed to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contribution of individual genes to bacterial survival during infection.
Out of 52384 TA dinucleotides present in the MAP K-10 genome, 12607 had a MycoMarT7 transposon in the input pool, interrupting 2443 of the 4350 genes in the MAP genome (56%). Of 96 genes situated in MAP-specific genomic islands, 82 were disrupted in the input pool, indicating that MAP-specific genomic regions are dispensable for in vitro growth (odds ratio = 0.21). Following 5 independent in vivo infections with this pool of mutants, the correlation between output pools was high for 4 of 5 (R = 0.49 to 0.61) enabling us to define genes whose disruption reproducibly reduced bacterial fitness in vivo. At three different thresholds for reduced fitness in vivo, MAP-specific genes were over-represented in the list of predicted essential genes. We also identified additional genes that were severely depleted after infection, and several of them have orthologues that are essential genes in M. tuberculosis.
This work indicates that the genetic elements required for the in vivo survival of MAP represent a combination of conserved mycobacterial virulence genes and MAP-specific genes acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo essential genes identified in this study may be further characterized to offer a better understanding of MAP pathogenesis, and potentially contribute to the discovery of novel therapeutic and vaccine targets.
"All mutants that increase or decrease in proportion to the remainder of the library are readily identified. The microarray methodologies are primarily called transposon site hybridization (TraSH; Sassetti et al., 2001; Murry et al., 2008). Several TraSH variants have been successful in identifying Salmonella spp. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.
Frontiers in Microbiology 05/2011; 2:101. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2011.00101 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a conceptual review of transposition-based strategies for determining gene essentiality on a one-by-one basis in bacteria. Many of the techniques are described in greater detail in individual chapters of this volume. The second section of this chapter deals with transposition-deletion-based strategies for determining the essentiality of blocks of genes. This latter approach has the potential to experimentally define the minimal required genome for a given organism.
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