Relation of bone mineral density to frequency of coronary heart disease.
ABSTRACT Coronary angiography was performed because of chest pain in 198 patients (146 women, 52 men; mean age 66 years) who had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the spine and left hip because of suspected osteoporosis or osteopenia. Of the 198 patients, 53 (27%) had osteoporosis, 79 (40%) had osteopenia, and 66 (33%) had normal bone mineral density (BMD). Obstructive coronary artery disease with >50% narrowing of > or =1 major coronary artery was present in 40 of 53 patients (76%) with osteoporosis, in 54 of 79 patients (68%) with osteopenia, and in 31 of 66 patients (47%) with normal BMD (p <0.005 comparing osteoporosis with normal BMD, p <0.01 comparing osteopenia with normal BMD). In conclusion, in patients who undergo coronary angiography because of chest pain, patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia have a higher prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease than those with normal BMD.
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ABSTRACT: Drugs used for the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis exert various favourable and unfavourable extra-skeletal effects whose importance is increasingly recognized notably for treatment selection. The therapeutic armamentarium for the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis is increasingly large, and possible extra-skeletal effects of available drugs could influence the choice of a particular compound. The present document is the result of a national consensus, based on a systematic and critical review of the literature. Observational research has suggested an inverse relationship between calcium intake and cardiovascular diseases, notably through an effect on blood pressure, but recent data suggest a possible deleterious effect of calcium supplements on cardiovascular risk. Many diverse studies have implicated vitamin D in the pathogenesis of clinically important non-skeletal functions or diseases, especially muscle function, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases and common cancers. The possible effects of oral or intravenous bisphosphonates are well-known. They have been associated with an increased risk of oesophageal cancer or atrial fibrillation, but large-scale studies have not found any association with bisphosphonate use. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators have demonstrated favourable or unfavourable extra-skeletal effects that vary between compounds. Strontium ranelate has a limited number of non-skeletal effects. A reported increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism is not found in observational studies, and very rare cases of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Denosumab has been introduced recently, and its extra-skeletal effects still have to be assessed. Several non-skeletal effects of bone drugs are well demonstrated and influence treatment choices.Osteoporosis International 02/2012; 23 Suppl 1:S1-23. · 4.58 Impact Factor
Article: (Sub)clinical cardiovascular disease is associated with increased bone loss and fracture risk; a systematic review of the association between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Both cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The co-occurrence of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis prompted us to review the evidence of an association between cardiovascular (CV) disease and osteoporosis and potential shared common pathophysiological mechanisms. A systematic literature search (Medline, Pubmed and Embase) was conducted to identify all clinical studies that investigated the association between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Relevant studies were screened for quality according to guidelines as proposed by the Dutch Cochrane Centre and evidence was summarized. Seventy studies were included in this review. Due to a large heterogeneity in study population, design and outcome measures a formal meta-analysis was not possible. Six of the highest ranked studies (mean n = 2,000) showed that individuals with prevalent subclinical CV disease had higher risk for increased bone loss and fractures during follow-up compared to persons without CV disease (range of reported risk: hazard ratio (HR) 1.5; odds ratio (OR) 2.3 to 3.0). The largest study (n = 31,936) reported a more than four times higher risk in women and more than six times higher risk in men. There is moderate evidence that individuals with low bone mass had higher CV mortality rates and incident CV events than subjects with normal bone mass (risk rates 1.2 to 1.4). Although the shared common pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the most important factors that might explain this association appear to be, besides age, estrogen deficiency and inflammation. The current evidence indicates that individuals with prevalent subclinical CV disease are at increased risk for bone loss and subsequent fractures. Presently no firm conclusions can be drawn as to what extent low bone mineral density might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk.Arthritis research & therapy 01/2011; 13(1):R5. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol is widely consumed across the world. It is consumed in both social and cultural settings. Until recently, two types of alcohol consumption were recognized: heavy chronic alcohol consumption or light consumption. Today, there is a new pattern of consumption among teenagers and young adults namely: binge drinking. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones, and is known to induce secondary osteoporosis. Some studies, however, have reported benefits from light alcohol consumption on bone parameters. To date, little is known regarding the effects of binge drinking on bone health. Here, we review the effects of three different means of alcohol consumption: light, heavy, and binge drinking. We also review the detailed literature on the different mechanisms by which alcohol intake may decrease bone mass and strength. The effects of alcohol on bone are thought to be both direct and indirect. The decrease in bone mass and strength following alcohol consumption is mainly due to a bone remodeling imbalance, with a predominant decrease in bone formation. Recent studies, however, have reported new mechanisms by which alcohol may act on bone remodeling, including osteocyte apoptosis, oxidative stress, and Wnt signalling pathway modulation. The roles of reduced total fat mass, increased lipid content in bone marrow, and a hypoleptinemia are also discussed.Osteoporosis International 09/2011; 23(1):1-16. · 4.58 Impact Factor