Severe Bile Salt Export Pump Deficiency: 82 Different ABCB11 Mutations in 109 Families

Institute of Liver Studies, King's College London School of Medicine at King's College Hospital, London, England.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 16.72). 04/2008; 134(4):1203-14. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.01.038
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Patients with severe bile salt export pump (BSEP) deficiency present as infants with progressive cholestatic liver disease. We characterized mutations of ABCB11 (encoding BSEP) in such patients and correlated genotypes with residual protein detection and risk of malignancy.
Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis suggestive of BSEP deficiency were investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing of ABCB11. Genotypes sorted by likely phenotypic severity were correlated with data on BSEP immunohistochemistry and clinical outcome.
Eighty-two different mutations (52 novel) were identified in 109 families (9 nonsense mutations, 10 small insertions and deletions, 15 splice-site changes, 3 whole-gene deletions, 45 missense changes). In 7 families, only a single heterozygous mutation was identified despite complete sequence analysis. Thirty-two percent of mutations occurred in >1 family, with E297G and/or D482G present in 58% of European families (52/89). On immunohistochemical analysis (88 patients), 93% had abnormal or absent BSEP staining. Expression varied most for E297G and D482G, with some BSEP detected in 45% of patients (19/42) with these mutations. Hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma developed in 15% of patients (19/128). Two protein-truncating mutations conferred particular risk; 38% (8/21) of such patients developed malignancy versus 10% (11/107) with potentially less severe genotypes (relative risk, 3.7 [confidence limits, 1.7-8.1; P = .003]).
With this study, >100 ABCB11 mutations are now identified. Immunohistochemically detectable BSEP is typically absent, or much reduced, in severe disease. BSEP deficiency confers risk of hepatobiliary malignancy. Close surveillance of BSEP-deficient patients retaining their native liver, particularly those carrying 2 null mutations, is essential.

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    • "Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes using a Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, Madison, WI), and all exons of ATP8B1 and ABCB11 and flanking intron–exon boundaries were analyzed as described previously [16,19,20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), an inherited liver disease caused by mutations in ATP8B1, progresses to severe cholestasis with a sustained intractable itch. Currently, no effective therapy has been established for PFIC1. Decreased function of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) in hepatocytes is suggested to be responsible for the severe cholestasis observed in PFIC1. We found a previously unidentified pharmacological effect of 4-phenylbutyrate (4PB) that increases the expression and function of BSEP. Here, we tested 4PB therapy in three patients with PFIC1. Methods The therapeutic potency of 4PB in these patients was tested by oral administration of this drug with gradually increasing dosage (200, 350, and 500 mg/kg/day) for 6 months. Biochemical, histological, and clinical data were collected. Results 4PB therapy had no beneficial effect on the patients’ liver functions, as assessed by biochemical and histological analyses, despite an increase in hepatic BSEP expression. However, therapy with 4PB at a dosage of 350 or 500 mg/kg/day significantly relieved the intractable itch. Serum levels of potential pruritogens in cholestasis were much higher than the reference ranges during the 4PB therapy. Conclusions 4PB therapy may be a new medication for patients with intractable cholestatic pruritus and may improve quality of life for patients and their families.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 07/2014; 9(1):89. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-9-89 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Its structure or function impairment could directly lead to bile metabolism disorders. Mutation of bile salt export pump (BSEP) could lead to the inherited cholestatic disorder progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) [8] [9]. Absence of multidrug resistant protein 2 (MRP2), responsible for transport of divalent bile acids, could cause Dubin-Johnson syndrome, an inherited liver disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia [10]. "
    Dataset: SCI-wanglu
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    • "The essential physiological function of BSEP in hepatobiliary bile salt secretion is apparent from several BSEP mutations resulting in absent or defective function of the protein. In progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2, the most severe form of BSEP deficiency syndrome, most of the afflicted patients have undetectable levels of BSEP protein at the canalicular membrane (Jansen et al., 1999; Strautnieks et al., 2008). This deficiency results in symptoms of cholestasis that develops before 6 months of age and progresses to end-stage liver disease within the first decade of life (Shneider, 2004; Whitington et al., 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive analysis was performed to investigate how inhibition of the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) relates to clinically observed drug induced liver injury (DILI). Inhibition of taurocholate (TA) transport was investigated in BSEP membrane vesicles for a dataset of 250 compounds, and 86 BSEP inhibitors were identified. Structure-activity modeling identified BSEP inhibition to correlate strongly with compound lipophilicity, while positive molecular charge was associated with a lack of inhibition. All approved drugs in the dataset (n=182) were categorized according to DILI warnings in drug labels issued by the FDA and a strong correlation between BSEP inhibition and DILI was identified. As many as 38 of the 61 identified BSEP inhibitors were associated with severe DILI, including nine drugs not previously linked to BSEP inhibition. Further, among the tested compounds, every second drug associated with severe DILI was a BSEP inhibitor. Finally, sandwich cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH) were used to investigate the relationship between BSEP inhibition, TA transport and clinically observed DILI in detail. BSEP inhibitors associated with severe DILI greatly reduced the TA canalicular efflux while BSEP inhibitors with less severe or no DILI resulted in weak or no reduction of TA efflux in SCHH. This distinction illustrates the usefulness of SCHH in refined analysis of BSEP inhibition. In conclusion, BSEP inhibition in membrane vesicles was found to correlate to DILI severity, and altered disposition of TA in SCHH was shown to separate BSEP inhibitors associated with severe DILI from those with no or mild DILI.
    Toxicological Sciences 09/2013; 136(2). DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kft197 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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