Nucleated red blood cells are a direct response to mediators of inflammation in newborns with early-onset neonatal sepsis
ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that inflammation modulates fetal erythroblastosis and/or the release of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) independent of hypoxia or fetal stress. We sought to determine whether fetal inflammation is associated with an elevation in neonatal NRBC count in the setting of inflammation-associated preterm birth.
The relationships between peripheral NRBC count, histological chorioamnionitis, umbilical cord interleukin (IL)-6, erythropoietin (EPO), cortisol, and acid-base status were analyzed in 68 preterm singletons, born to mothers who had an amniocentesis to rule out infection. Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid identified presence of intraamniotic inflammation according to established parameters. NRBC counts were assessed within 1 hour of birth. Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) was established based on hematological and microbiological indices. IL-6, EPO, and cortisol levels were measured by immunoassays. Fetal acid-base status was determined within 10 minutes of delivery. Parametric or nonparametric statistics were used.
Fetuses with EONS (n = 19) were delivered at earlier gestational ages (mean +/- SD: 27.1 +/- 2.8 weeks, P = .001) and more often by mothers with intraamniotic inflammation (P = .022) and histological chorioamnionitis (P < .001). Neonates with EONS had higher absolute NRBC counts (P = .011). NRBC counts were directly correlated with cord blood IL-6 levels (P < .001) but not with EPO, cortisol or parameters of acid-base status levels regardless of EONS status. These relationships remained following correction for gestational age, diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, and steroid exposure.
In the setting of inflammation-associated preterm birth and in the absence of hypoxia, elevations in NRBCs in the early neonatal period may be a direct response of exposure to inflammatory mediators in utero.
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ABSTRACT: Eustachian tube dysfunction and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. Our objective was to investigate whether children referred for isolated TTI (tympanostomy tube insertion) are at increased risk for snoring and upper airway procedures. Telephone interviews to parents of children who underwent isolated TTI and to age- and gender-matched controls were conducted. Four hundred fifty-seven children were included in the study; 352 had isolated TTI (study group) and 105 children were controls. Twenty-two percent of children in the study group were reported to snore compared with 7.6% in the controls (p=0.001). Eighteen percent of children in the study group were reported to have undergone adenotonsillectomy compared with 4.8% in the controls (p=0.0005). Future SDB, i.e., either snoring or adenotonsillectomy following TTI, was found in 34% of children in the study group compared with 11% in the controls (p=0.0004). Children who underwent isolated TTI were at increased risk for future snoring (OR=3.4, CI: 1.6-7.2) and future adenotonsillectomy (OR=4.4, CI: 1.7-11.2). Children who undergo isolated TTI are at increased risk for snoring and for adenotonsillectomy. We suggest that these children be followed for symptoms of SDB on a scheduled basis to allow for early diagnosis and intervention.Sleep Medicine 02/2010; 11(2):197-200. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2009.04.011 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For a decade, industrial designers using virtual worlds suffered from equipment costs that were too high and technology that simply could not perform up to expectations. Those problems have now been solved. But designers still have to deal with significant challenges inherent to the design enterprise, challenges made more pressing, ironically, by better, faster, and cheaper technology. In the end, with thought and effort, these problems will be resolved. The use of virtual worlds for the purpose of design will be democratized, become pervasive, and greatly increase shared understanding in businesses and agencies, and among individuals. The author highlights the more pressing challenges and suggests remedies for them, where these existVirtual Systems and Multimedia, 2001. Proceedings. Seventh International Conference on; 02/2001
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to evaluate the fetal renal artery impedance in the context of inflammation-associated preterm birth. We conducted a prospective Doppler assessment of the fetal renal artery impedance in 70 singleton fetuses. The study group consisted of 56 premature fetuses (median, 28.1 [interquartile range, 25.3-30.6] weeks at enrollment). Gestational age (GA) reference ranges were generated based on fetuses with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 14). Doppler studies included renal artery pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio, and presence or absence of end-diastolic blood flow. Proteomic profiling (surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) was used for assessment of intraamniotic inflammation and biomarker peak corresponding to beta2-microglubin. Data were interpreted in relationship to amniotic fluid index (AFI), cord blood interleukin (IL)-6 and erythropoietin (EPO) levels. The cardiovascular and metabolic profiles of the neonates were investigated in the first 24 hours of life. Fetuses delivered by mothers with intraamniotic inflammation had higher cord blood IL-6 but not EPO levels. Fetal inflammation did not affect either renal artery PI, RI, S/D ratio, or end-diastolic blood flow. Neonates delivered in the context of intraamniotic inflammation had higher serum blood urea nitrogen levels, which correlated significantly with AF IL-6 levels. The renal artery RI and SD ratio were inversely correlated with the AFI independent of GA, cord blood IL-6, and status of the membranes. The fetus is capable of sustaining normal renal artery impedance despite inflammation. Resistance in the renal vascular bed affects urine output independent of inflammation.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 03/2009; 200(2):203.e1-11. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.11.001 · 3.97 Impact Factor