Laboratory diet profoundly alters gene expression and confounds genomic analysis in mouse liver and lung.
ABSTRACT Nutritional studies in laboratory animals have long shown that various dietary components can contribute to altered gene expression and metabolism, but diet alone has not been considered in whole animal genomic studies. In this study, global gene expression changes in mice fed either a non-purified chow or a purified diet were investigated and background metal levels in the two diets were measured by ICP-MS. C57BL/6J mice were raised for 5 weeks on either the cereal-based, non-purified LRD-5001 diet or the purified, casein-based AIN-76A diet, as part of a larger study examining the effects of low dose arsenic (As) in the diet or drinking water. Affymetrix Mouse Whole Genome 430 2.0 microarrays were used to assess gene expression changes in the liver and lung. Microarray analysis revealed that animals fed the LRD-5001 diet displayed a significantly higher hepatic expression of Phase I and II metabolism genes as well as other metabolic genes. The LRD-5001 diet masked the As-induced gene expression changes that were clearly seen in the animals fed the AIN-76A diet when each dietary group was exposed to 100 ppb As in drinking water. Trace metal analysis revealed that the LRD-5001 diet contained a mixture of inorganic and organic As at a total concentration of 390 ppb, while the AIN-76A diet contained approximately 20 ppb. These findings indicate that the use of non-purified diets may profoundly alter observable patterns of change induced by arsenic and, likely, by other experimental treatments, particularly, altering gene and protein expression.
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ABSTRACT: Selecting the optimum diet for endocrine disruptor (ED) research and testing studies in rodents is critical because the diet may determine the sensitivity to detect or properly evaluate an ED compound. Dietary estrogens can profoundly influence many molecular and cellular event actions on estrogen receptors and estrogen-sensitive genes. The source, concentration, relative potency, and significance of dietary estrogens in rodent diets are reviewed, including dietary factors that focus specifically on total metabolizable energy and phytoestrogen content, which potentially affect ED studies in rodents. Research efforts to determine dietary factors in commercially available rodent diets that affect uterotrophic assays and the time of vaginal opening in immature CD-1 mice are summarized. A checklist is provided of important factors to consider when selecting diets for ED research and testing studies in rodents. Specific metabolizable energy levels are recommended for particular bioassays. Discussions include the between-batch variation in content of the phytoestrogens daidzein and genistein, the effects of total metabolizable energy and phytoestrogens on the timing (i.e., acceleration) of vaginal opening, and increased uterine weight in immature CD-1 mice. It is concluded that rodent diets differ significantly in estrogenic activity primarily due to the large variations in phytoestrogen content; therefore animal diets used in all ED studies should ideally be free of endocrine-modulating compounds.ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 02/2004; 45(4):401-16. · 1.58 Impact Factor
- 01/2003; Blackwell., ISBN: 978-1-40510-682-5
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ABSTRACT: Biological markers of internal dose and macromolecular dose from PAHs provide a potential means of assessing environmental exposure to PAHs through inhalation, ingestion and percutaneous absorption. In this study we examined the time course and interindividual variation of 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHP-gluc) excretion in urine and PAH-DNA adduct formation in peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) after charbroiled (CB) beef consumption. As a marker of internal dose, 1-OHP-gluc was measured in human urine using immunoaffinity chromatography and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. PAH-DNA adducts were measured in WBCs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to assess macromolecular dose. Ten healthy non-smoking males consumed identical amounts of CB beef on five consecutive days. Multiple blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the feeding period. The morning after the first day of CB beef consumption, individual urinary concentrations of 1-OHP-gluc increased 10- to 80-fold (range: 2.0-16.6 pmol/ml urine) above pre-feed baseline concentrations (0.23 +/- 0.11 pmol/ml) in the 10 subjects. 1-OHP-gluc concentration decreased to near baseline levels by 24-72 h after CB beef consumption ended. In contrast, PAH-DNA adducts in WBCs increased markedly in only four of 10 subjects during or after CB beef consumption. Significant interindividual variation was observed for both urinary 1-OHP-gluc concentration (P < 0.001 by Kruskal-Wallis) and PAH-DNA adduct levels (P < 0.005) during the feeding period. The mean urinary 1-OHP-gluc concentration for each subject during and immediately after (days 2-8) the feeding period was significantly correlated with their mean PAH-DNA adduct level in WBCs during the same time period (Spearman r = 0.79, P < 0.01). Evidence of segregation of the subjects into separate response groups based on level of urinary 1-OHP-gluc was observed, suggesting that discrete determinants may regulate the absorption, metabolism and/or excretion of ingested pyrene.Carcinogenesis 05/1995; 16(5):1079-85. · 5.64 Impact Factor