Safety of a fifth dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine in children experiencing extensive, local reactions to the fourth dose
ABSTRACT Extensive local reactions have been reported after booster doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine, but few data are available on revaccination after these reactions. Of 20 children with extensive local reactions after dose 4, only 4 experienced entire upper arm swelling and 7 had swelling >5 cm after dose 5. These reactions were well tolerated and support revaccination.
The Journal of pediatrics 02/2013; 162(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.01.028 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa). One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw) that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated with high concentrations of circulating IgG against vaccine antigens, it has not been firmly established that host protection induced with this vaccine is mediated solely by humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in host immunity to infection with B. pertussis and in immunity induced by immunization with Pw and Pa and to use this information to help rationally design a more effective Pa. Our findings demonstrate that Th1 and Th17 both function in protective immunity induced by infection with B. pertussis or immunization with Pw. In contrast, a current licensed Pa, administered with alum as the adjuvant, induced Th2 and Th17 cells, but weak Th1 responses. We found that IL-1 signalling played a central role in protective immunity induced with alum-adsorbed Pa and this was associated with the induction of Th17 cells. Pa generated strong antibody and Th2 responses, but was fully protective in IL-4-defective mice, suggesting that Th2 cells were dispensable. In contrast, Pa failed to confer protective immunity in IL-17A-defective mice. Bacterial clearance mediated by Pa-induced Th17 cells was associated with cell recruitment to the lungs after challenge. Finally, protective immunity induced by an experimental Pa could be enhanced by substituting alum with a TLR agonist that induces Th1 cells. Our findings demonstrate that alum promotes protective immunity through IL-1β-induced IL-17A production, but also reveal that optimum protection against B. pertussis requires induction of Th1, but not Th2 cells.PLoS Pathogens 04/2013; 9(4):e1003264. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003264 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Paleozoic granitoid magmatism played an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Chinese Altai, and zircon U–Pb and Hf isotopic compositions have been determined for samples from eleven granitic plutons/batholiths. The Jiadengyu gneissic granitic pluton yielded a zircon U–Pb age of 479 Ma, and thus it does not represent Precambrian basement as suggested previously. Our results and published data demonstrate that voluminous granitoids were continuously emplaced over more than 30% area of the Chinese Altai during the period from 447 Ma to 368 Ma with a climax at ca. 400 Ma. Ages for zircon over-growth rims demonstrate additional thermal events at ca. 360 and 280 Ma, respectively. Positive e Hf (t) values (0 to +9) of normal magmatic zircons suggest that the granitoid magmas were derived from juve-nile sources. Xenocrystic zircon cores are 543–421 Ma old and also give positive e Hf (t) values (+2.5 to +12), suggesting their origin as early crystallized minerals in the magma chambers or as inherited cores from newly-accreted meterials. The strong magmatism at ca. 400 Ma significantly changed the Hf isoto-pic composition of the magma source by substantial input of juvenile material in a relatively short period. Geophysical, geological and geochemical data support that ridge subduction was a possible mechanism for the strong magmatism ca. 400 Ma and the above mentioned change of Hf isotopic composition in the magma source.Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 03/2011; 42:949-968. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.11.020 · 2.83 Impact Factor