Changes in lipid profile over 24 months among adults on first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in the home-based AIDS care program in rural Uganda.
ABSTRACT Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been linked to dyslipidemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients in industrialized countries. The effects of HAART on lipid metabolism among sub-Saharan Africans, for whom access to antiretroviral therapy is expanding, remain largely unknown.
From July 2003 to May 2004, 987 antiretroviral-naive patients with symptomatic HIV disease or a CD4 count <250 cells/mm3 were started on HAART in the Home-Based AIDS Care (HBAC) Program in Tororo, Uganda. The HBAC Program provided weekly drug delivery and field-based clinical monitoring. Nonfasting repository sera from a subset of 374 patients were analyzed for levels of total cholesterol (TC), direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), direct high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides (TG) at baseline (before HAART) and after 12 and 24 months of HAART using Randox enzymatic kits (Crumlin, United Kingdom).
The 374 patients evaluated (49% women, mean age = 39 years, CD4 count = 124 cells/mm3, body mass index = 19.7 kg/m2) received initial HAART composed of stavudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (365 patients [98%]) or efavirenz (9 patients [2%]). During 24 months, 99 (26%) patients had single drug substitutions from stavudine to zidovudine and 27 (7%) had single drug substitutions from nevirapine to efavirenz. At baseline, the mean serum lipid concentrations were 120 mg/dL for TC, 53 mg/dL for LDL-c, 29 mg/dL for HDL-c, and 123 mg/dL for TG; values were generally comparable for men and women. During 24 months of treatment, TC increased by a mean of 31 mg/dL, LDL-c by a mean of 26 mg/dL, and HDL-c by a mean of 19 mg/dL, whereas the TC/HDL-c ratio decreased from a mean of 4.6 to 3.4 (all changes, P < 0.001). TG levels initially decreased and then returned to baseline levels by 24 months. At baseline and 24 months, respectively, TC was > or =200 mg/dL for 2% and 10% of patients, LDL-c was > or =130 mg/dL for 1% and 6%, HDL-c was <40 mg/dL for 88% and 41%, and TG were > or =150 mg/dL for 23% and 20%.
Rural Ugandans with advanced HIV disease initiating nevirapine- or efavirenz-based HAART experienced infrequent elevations in TC, LDL-c, and TG at baseline and after 24 months of therapy. Increases in HDL-c levels were substantial and proportionally greater than increases in TC or LDL-c levels. The risk of CVD and how it is affected by lipid changes in this rural African population are unknown. However, the changes we observed after 24 months of HAART seem unlikely to increase the risk of CVD.
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ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction is a severe complication of advanced HIV disease. We evaluated the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on renal function among HIV-infected Ugandans in the Home-Based AIDS Care clinical trial. The patients presented with symptomatic HIV disease or CD4 cell count < or = 250 cells/mm(3) and creatinine clearances above 25 ml/min determined by the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Of the 508 patients at baseline, 8% had a serum creatinine over 133 micromol/l and about 20% had reduced renal function evidenced by a creatinine clearance between 25 and 50 ml/min. After 2 years of HAART, the median serum creatinine was significantly decreased by 16% while the median creatinine clearance significantly increased 21%. The median creatinine clearance of patients with renal dysfunction at baseline, increased by 53% during 2 years of treatment. In multivariable analysis, a baseline creatinine above 133 micromol/l, a weight gain of more than 5 kg over the 2 years, female gender and a WHO stage 4 classification were all associated with greater improvements in creatinine clearance on HAART. Our study shows that renal dysfunction was common with advanced HIV disease in Uganda but this improved following 2 years of HAART.Kidney International 07/2008; 74(7):925-9. DOI:10.1038/ki.2008.305 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Use of raltegravir with optimum background therapy is effective and well tolerated in treatment-experienced patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection. We compared the safety and efficacy of raltegravir with efavirenz as part of combination antiretroviral therapy for treatment-naive patients. Patients from 67 study centres on five continents were enrolled between Sept 14, 2006, and June 5, 2008. Eligible patients were infected with HIV-1, had viral RNA (vRNA) concentration of more than 5000 copies per mL, and no baseline resistance to efavirenz, tenofovir, or emtricitabine. Patients were randomly allocated by interactive voice response system in a 1:1 ratio (double-blind) to receive 400 mg oral raltegravir twice daily or 600 mg oral efavirenz once daily, in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine. The primary efficacy endpoint was achievement of a vRNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48. The primary analysis was per protocol. The margin of non-inferiority was 12%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00369941. 566 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated to treatment, of whom 281 received raltegravir, 282 received efavirenz, and three were never treated. At baseline, 297 (53%) patients had more than 100 000 vRNA copies per mL and 267 (47%) had CD4 counts of 200 cells per microL or less. The main analysis (with non-completion counted as failure) showed that 86.1% (n=241 patients) of the raltegravir group and 81.9% (n=230) of the efavirenz group achieved the primary endpoint (difference 4.2%, 95% CI -1.9 to 10.3). The time to achieve such viral suppression was shorter for patients on raltegravir than on efavirenz (log-rank test p<0.0001). Significantly fewer drug-related clinical adverse events occurred in patients on raltegravir (n=124 [44.1%]) than those on efavirenz (n=217 [77.0%]; difference -32.8%, 95% CI -40.2 to -25.0, p<0.0001). Serious drug-related clinical adverse events occurred in less than 2% of patients in each drug group. Raltegravir-based combination treatment had rapid and potent antiretroviral activity, which was non-inferior to that of efavirenz at week 48. Raltegravir is a well tolerated alternative to efavirenz as part of a combination regimen against HIV-1 in treatment-naive patients. Merck.The Lancet 07/2009; 374(9692):796-806. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60918-1 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alterations of serum lipid profiles have been reported widely among Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients on Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART). However, there are few data on serum lipid profile among treatment naïve HIV positive patients in our environment. To describe the pattern of lipid profile among treatment naïve HIV positive patients and changes following HAART initiation. One hundred and thirty HIV positive patients seen in HIV center in an urban area in Nigeria and 44 matched individuals were recruited. Data were collected on socio demographic characters, baseline lipid profiles and CD4 count. Values of lipid parameters were retrieved after 12 months on HAART. The mean Low density lipoprotein(LDL) was 2.26+ 0.9 mmol/l among the test group compared with 0.96+0.39 mmol/L among the control, p value=0.000. The mean High density lipoprotein (HDL) was also significantly lower, 0.8+0.6 mmol/L reaching a dyslipidemic level, in the HIV positive group than the control, p value = 0.00. Tuberculosis/HIV co infected patients had a significantly elevated mean LDL, p=0.002. Abnormality of serum lipid is common among treatment naïve HIV patients seen in Nigeria. The NNRTI regimen is associated with elevation of HDL and some stabilization of TC and TG.African health sciences 06/2010; 10(2):144-9. DOI:10.4314/ahs.v10i2.60059 · 0.66 Impact Factor