Hemostatic implications of endothelial cell apoptosis in obstructive sleep apnea.
ABSTRACT Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of atherothrombosis independent of the Framingham risk factors. Studies on hemostasis factors in OSA are scarce and inconsistent. We sought to understand the variation in atherothrombotic propensity as a function of apoptotic circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in OSA by investigating the relationship between CEC apoptosis and plasma levels of hemostatic factors tissue factor (TF) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in apneic subjects. Apoptotic CECs were detected by flow cytometry in 35 male subjects free of cardiovascular diseases (AHI range 8-43) and 12 healthy male controls (AHI range 2-5) before and after 8 weeks of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Quantitative determination of TF and vWF was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The mean levels of TF (66.78 +/- 41.59 pg/ml) and vWF (189.70 +/- 69.24 IU/dl) were significantly higher in OSA patients compared with those in healthy subjects (42.83 +/- 14.18 pg/ml; and 124.48 +/- 31.43 IU/dl). Apoptotic CECs were elevated in patients with OSA and correlated strongly with TF and vWF levels (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001; respectively). There were no correlations between TF, vWF and apnea hypopnea index, or arousal index. Only the percentage of time spent <90% oxygen saturation was inversely associated with TF (r = 0.38; p = 0.02). Following nCPAP therapy, there was significant decrease in TF levels that correlated with decrease in apoptotic CECs. In patients with OSA, increased prothrombotic factors are strongly determined by apoptotic CECs. Treatment with nCPAP may alleviate the coagulation propensity.
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ABSTRACT: Subjective sleep disturbances have been associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that disrupted sleep as verified by polysomnography is associated with increased levels of prothrombotic hemostasis factors previously shown to predict CAD risk. Full-night polysomnography was performed in 135 unmedicated men and women (mean age +/- SD, 36.8 +/- 7.8 years) without a history of sleep disorders. Morning fasting plasma levels of von Willebrand Factor (VWF) antigen, soluble tissue factor (sTF) antigen, d-dimer, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 antigen were determined. Statistical analyses were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, BP, and smoking history. Higher total arousal index (ArI) was associated with higher levels of VWF (beta = 0.25, p = 0.011, DeltaR(2) = 0.045), and longer wake after sleep onset was associated with higher levels of sTF (beta = 0.23, p = 0.023, DeltaR(2) = 0.038). More nighttime spent at mean oxygen saturation < 90% (beta = 0.20, p = 0.020, DeltaR(2) = 0.029) and higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) [beta = 0.19, p = 0.034, DeltaR(2) = 0.024] were associated with higher PAI-1. There was a trend for a relationship between mean oxygen desaturation < 90% and PAI-1 (p = 0.053), even after controlling for AHI. Total ArI (beta = 0.28, p = 0.005, DeltaR(2) = 0.056) and WASO (beta = 0.25, p = 0.017, DeltaR(2) = 0.042) continued to predict VWF and sTF, respectively, even after controlling for AHI. Polysomnographically verified sleep disruptions were associated with prothrombotic changes. Measures of sleep fragmentation and sleep efficiency were related to VWF and sTF, respectively. Apnea-related measures were related to PAI-1. Our findings suggest that sleep disruptions, even in a relatively healthy population, are associated with potential markers of prothrombotic cardiovascular risk.Chest 03/2007; 131(3):733-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Injury of endothelial cells has been advanced as an initial trigger to atherosclerosis. To study the association between circulating apoptotic endothelial cells and vasomotor dysfunction as a function of sleep apnea. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was determined in 14 subjects with documented OSA and 10 healthy control subjects at baseline and 8 weeks after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Quantification of circulating apoptotic endothelial cells (CD146(+) Annexin V(+)) was performed by flow cytometry. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with OSA had higher numbers of circulating CD146(+) Annexin V(+) cells (39.2 +/- 13.6 cells/mL and 17.8 +/- 9.4, respectively; p < 0.001). Increased apoptotic endothelial cells correlated moderately with abnormal vascular function (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). A significant correlation was observed between CD146 Annexin V(+) cells and the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.56; p = 0.004). After 8 weeks of treatment with CPAP, the numbers of circulating apoptotic endothelial cells were reduced significantly from 39.2 +/- 13.6 to 22.3 +/- 12.9 apoptotic cells per milliliter (p < 0.001) and correlated with improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (r = 0.49; p = 0.07). In patients with OSA, impairment of endothelial-dependent vasodilation correlated with the degree of endothelial cell apoptosis. CPAP therapy led to significant decline in circulating apoptotic endothelial cells. These findings provide an additional mechanism for the predisposition of patients with OSA to premature vascular disease.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2007; 175(11):1186-91. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in the general population and has been linked to chronically elevated blood pressure in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. We performed a prospective, population-based study of the association between objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension (defined as a laboratory-measured blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications). We analyzed data on sleep-disordered breathing, blood pressure, habitus, and health history at base line and after four years of follow-up in 709 participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (and after eight years of follow-up in the case of 184 of these participants). Participants were assessed overnight by 18-channel polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep). The odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at the four-year follow-up study according to the apnea-hypopnea index at base line were estimated after adjustment for base-line hypertension status, body-mass index, neck and waist circumference, age, sex, and weekly use of alcohol and cigarettes. Relative to the reference category of an apnea-hypopnea index of 0 events per hour at base line, the odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at follow-up were 1.42 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.78) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 0.1 to 4.9 events per hour at base line as compared with none, 2.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.29 to 3.17) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 5.0 to 14.9 events per hour, and 2.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.46 to 5.64) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 15.0 or more events per hour. We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four years later that was independent of known confounding factors. The findings suggest that sleep-disordered breathing is likely to be a risk factor for hypertension and consequent cardiovascular morbidity in the general population.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2000; 342(19):1378-84. · 51.66 Impact Factor