Hemostatic implications of endothelial cell apoptosis in obstructive sleep apnea.
ABSTRACT Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of atherothrombosis independent of the Framingham risk factors. Studies on hemostasis factors in OSA are scarce and inconsistent. We sought to understand the variation in atherothrombotic propensity as a function of apoptotic circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in OSA by investigating the relationship between CEC apoptosis and plasma levels of hemostatic factors tissue factor (TF) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in apneic subjects. Apoptotic CECs were detected by flow cytometry in 35 male subjects free of cardiovascular diseases (AHI range 8-43) and 12 healthy male controls (AHI range 2-5) before and after 8 weeks of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Quantitative determination of TF and vWF was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The mean levels of TF (66.78 +/- 41.59 pg/ml) and vWF (189.70 +/- 69.24 IU/dl) were significantly higher in OSA patients compared with those in healthy subjects (42.83 +/- 14.18 pg/ml; and 124.48 +/- 31.43 IU/dl). Apoptotic CECs were elevated in patients with OSA and correlated strongly with TF and vWF levels (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001; respectively). There were no correlations between TF, vWF and apnea hypopnea index, or arousal index. Only the percentage of time spent <90% oxygen saturation was inversely associated with TF (r = 0.38; p = 0.02). Following nCPAP therapy, there was significant decrease in TF levels that correlated with decrease in apoptotic CECs. In patients with OSA, increased prothrombotic factors are strongly determined by apoptotic CECs. Treatment with nCPAP may alleviate the coagulation propensity.
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ABSTRACT: Background Short sleep duration and poor quality sleep are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality; however, the underlying pathophysiologic process remains unclear. Sleep apnea may confound the association because of its association with formation of thrombi, the vascular occlusive process in CHD. We tested whether sleep duration and quality were associated with prothrombotic biomarkers in adults with a low probability of apnea. Methods We included adults aged 35-64 years recruited from the community and who had an apnea hypopnea index <15 after one night of screening (n=506). Sleep duration and maintenance were determined from 7 days of wrist actigraphy; daytime sleepiness was estimated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombin antithrombin complexes (TAT), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured in fasting blood. Results Sleep duration, maintenance and daytime sleepiness were not associated with FVIII, vWf or TAT. Sleep maintenance was modestly inversely associated with higher levels of log transformed PAI-1 (β= -0.07, SE =0.03 per 4.8%, p=0.04) following adjustment for demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and BMI. Conclusions Mild impairment in sleep was modestly associated with activation of coagulation; further study is needed to evaluate the role of fibrinolytic factors in sleep-mediated coronary thrombosis.Sleep Medicine. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Circulating bone-marrow-derived cells, named endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), are capable of maintaining, generating, and replacing terminally differentiated cells within their own specific tissue as a consequence of physiological cell turnover or tissue damage due to injury. Endothelium maintenance and restoration of normal endothelial cell function is guaranteed by a complex physiological procedure in which EPCs play a significant role. Decreased number of peripheral blood EPCs has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and high cardiovascular risk. In this review, we initially report current knowledge with regard to the role of EPCs in healthy subjects and the clinical value of EPCs in different disease populations such as arterial hypertension, obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial disease, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. Recent studies have introduced the novel concept that physical activity, either performed as a single exercise session or performed as part of an exercise training program, results in a significant increase of circulating EPCs. In the second part of this review we provide preliminary evidence from recent studies investigating the effects of acute and long-term exercise in healthy subjects and athletes as well as in disease populations.World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 12/2012; 4(12):312-26. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial function typically precedes clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and provides a potential mechanism for the associations observed between cardiovascular disease and sleep quality. This study examined how subjective and objective indicators of sleep quality relate to endothelial function, as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In a clinical research centre, 100 non-shift working adults (mean age: 36 years) completed FMD testing and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, along with a polysomnography assessment to obtain the following measures: slow wave sleep, percentage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep latency, total arousal index, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and apnea-hypopnea index. Bivariate correlations and follow-up multiple regressions examined how FMD related to subjective (i.e. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores) and objective (i.e. polysomnography-derived) indicators of sleep quality. After FMD showed bivariate correlations with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, percentage REM sleep and REM latency, further examination with separate regression models indicated that these associations remained significant after adjustments for sex, age, race, hypertension, body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index, smoking and income (Ps < 0.05). Specifically, as FMD decreased, scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index increased (indicating decreased subjective sleep quality) and percentage REM sleep decreased, while REM sleep latency increased (Ps < 0.05). Poorer subjective sleep quality and adverse changes in REM sleep were associated with diminished vasodilation, which could link sleep disturbances to cardiovascular disease.Journal of Sleep Research 08/2013; · 2.95 Impact Factor