A plant pathogen virulence factor inhibits the eukaryotic proteasome by a novel mechanism.

Center for Integrated Protein Science at the Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, Garching D-85747, Germany.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 05/2008; 452(7188):755-8. DOI: 10.1038/nature06782
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pathogenic bacteria often use effector molecules to increase virulence. In most cases, the mode of action of effectors remains unknown. Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) secrete syringolin A (SylA), a product of a mixed non-ribosomal peptide/polyketide synthetase, in planta. Here we identify SylA as a virulence factor because a SylA-negative mutant in Pss strain B728a obtained by gene disruption was markedly less virulent on its host, Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). We show that SylA irreversibly inhibits all three catalytic activities of eukaryotic proteasomes, thus adding proteasome inhibition to the repertoire of modes of action of virulence factors. The crystal structure of the yeast proteasome in complex with SylA revealed a novel mechanism of covalent binding to the catalytic subunits. Thus, SylA defines a new class of proteasome inhibitors that includes glidobactin A (GlbA), a structurally related compound from an unknown species of the order Burkholderiales, for which we demonstrate a similar proteasome inhibition mechanism. As proteasome inhibitors are a promising class of anti-tumour agents, the discovery of a novel family of inhibitory natural products, which we refer to as syrbactins, may also have implications for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Homologues of SylA and GlbA synthetase genes are found in some other pathogenic bacteria, including the human pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. It is thus possible that these bacteria are capable of producing proteasome inhibitors of the syrbactin class.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, regulated protein turnover is required during many cellular processes, including defense against pathogens. Ubiquitination and degradation of ubiquitinated proteins via the ubiquitin – proteasome system (UPS) is the main pathway for the turnover of intracellular proteins in eukaryotes. The extensive utilization of the UPS in host cells makes it an ideal pivot for the manipulation of cellular processes by pathogens. Like many other Gram-negative bacteria, Xanthomonas species secrete a suite of type-III effector proteins (T3Es) into their host cells to promote virulence. Some of these T3Es exploit the plant UPS to interfere with immunity. This review summarizes T3E examples from the genus Xanthomonas with a proven or suggested interaction with the host UPS or UPS-like systems and also discusses the apparent paradox that arises from the presence of T3Es that inhibit the UPS in general while others rely on its activity for their function.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 12/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Yield stability of legume crops is constrained by a number of pest and diseases. Major diseases are rusts, powdery and downy mildews, ascochyta blights, botrytis gray molds, anthracnoses, damping-off, root rots, collar rots, vascular wilts and white molds. Parasitic weeds, viruses, bacteria, nematodes and damages caused by chewing and sap-sucking insects add to this long list of constraints for legume production. Their incidence and relative importance together with current understanding of their interactions with the host plants are presented. State of the art of current achievements and limitations for breeding for biotic stress resistance are listed and critically discussed. The recent development of large scale phenotyping, genome sequencing and analysis of gene, protein and metabolite expressions can be of great help to further decipher plant-pathogen interactions and identify key resistance components that may be introgressed into crop plants through breeding.
    Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 06/2015; 34. · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Pseudomonas syringae is pathogenic to a large number of plant species. For host colonization and disease progression, strains of this bacterium utilize an array of type III-secreted effectors and other virulence factors, including small secreted molecules such as syringolin A, a peptide derivative that inhibits the eukaryotic proteasome. In strains colonizing dicotyledonous plants, the compound was demonstrated to suppress the salicylic-acid-dependent defense pathway. Here, we analyze virulence factors of three strains colonizing wheat (Triticum aestivum): P. syringae pathovar syringae (Psy) strains B64 and SM, as well as P. syringae BRIP34876. These strains have a relatively small repertoire of only seven to eleven type III secreted effectors (T3Es) and differ in their capacity to produce syringolin A. The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of various known virulence factors in the context of a small T3E repertoire.ResultsWe demonstrate that syringolin A production enhances disease symptom development upon direct infiltration of strains into wheat leaves. However, it is not universally required for colonization, as Psy SM, which lacks syringolin biosynthesis genes, reaches cell densities comparable to syringolin A producer P. syringae BRIP34876. Next, we show that despite the small set of T3E-encoding genes, the type III secretion system remains the key pathogenicity determinant in these strains, and that phenotypic effects of deleting T3E-coding genes become apparent only when multiple effectors are removed.Conclusions Whereas production of syringolin A is not required for successful colonization of wheat leaves by P. syringae strains, its production results in increased lesion formation. Despite the small number of known T3Es encoded by the analyzed strains, the type III secretion system is essential for endophytic growth of these strains.
    BMC Microbiology 12/2014; 14(1):304. · 2.98 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014