Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States.
ABSTRACT The United States Environmental Protection Agency implements a national drinking-water program under the authority of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Amendments to the Act in 1996 added new provisions to enhance consumer understanding of drinking-water issues. Notification requirements associated with annual consumer confidence reports, source water assessments and state compliance reports are intended to enhance the public's knowledge of the quality of their drinking water. Water utilities are also subject to public notification requirements to provide more timely information to consumers in response to violations of health standards. These right-to-know requirements are intended to build the public's confidence, but communicating with consumers can be challenging for both utility managers and government leaders. This paper discusses the need for timely communication, the challenge of providing information when there is uncertainty in the science and the importance of preparing to respond to critical incidents. Because surveys have shown that other members of the community may have better access to consumers or are more trusted, it is important for water utilities to establish relationships with the media and the local public health community.
- SourceAvailable from: Przemysław Drzewicz
Article: Physico-Chemical Processes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review of the literature published in 2008 deals with the physico-chemical processes used to treat water and wastewaters. The review is divided into six sections, including coagulation/flocculation, sorption processes, filtration, sedimentation/flotation, oxidation and air stripping.Water Environment Research 09/2009; 81(10):1056-1126. DOI:10.2175/106143009X12445568399451 · 1.00 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are promising photosensitizers for use in various branches of science and industry. In the presence of visible light and diatomic oxygen, phthalocyanines can react to produce singlet oxygen, a member of reactive oxygen species able to damage different molecules and tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of phthalocyanines to degrade natural toxins in the presence of visible light. As the representative of hardly degradable toxins, a group of cyanobacterial peptide toxins--microcystin-LR--was chosen for this study. According to our results, phthalocyanines are able to degrade 61.5% of microcystins within a 48-hour incubation (38% of microcystins was degraded after 24 h and 24% after 12 h of incubation). Although other oxidants like hydrogen peroxide or ozone are able to degrade microcystins within several hours, we assume that by optimizing the spectrum emitted by light source and by changing the absorption characteristics of Pcs, microcystins degradation by phthalocyanines could be more effective in the near future.Water Science & Technology 07/2010; 62(2):273-8. DOI:10.2166/wst.2010.306 · 1.21 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to identify and analyse the perception of groups of dwellers of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, regarding their relationship with the water and sanitation service and aspects of water handling. Participants living in four distinct urban districts of the capital city were interviewed in their own houses and the Discourse of the Collective Subject approach was employed to order the data so obtained. The testimonies revealed the health risk to which individuals were exposed by virtue of: (i) inadequate knowledge concerning the water supply offered, (ii) lack of stimulus to exert their citizens' rights and obligations in relation to the water provided for their consumption and (iii) poor channels of communication between the community, the water and sanitation service and the local public health authority. The study concluded that there is a need to rethink the forms of information provided to the population that are presently adopted by these institutions.Journal of Water and Health 12/2010; 8(4):764-78. DOI:10.2166/wh.2010.067 · 1.46 Impact Factor