ASAP3, an Arf GTPase-activating protein previously called DDEFL1 and ACAP4, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. We have examined in vitro and in vivo functions of ASAP3 and compared it to the related Arf GAP ASAP1 that has also been implicated in oncogenesis. ASAP3 was biochemically similar to ASAP1: the pleckstrin homology domain affected function of the catalytic domain by more than 100-fold; catalysis was stimulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; and Arf1, Arf5, and Arf6 were used as substrates in vitro. Like ASAP1, ASAP3 associated with focal adhesions and circular dorsal ruffles. Different than ASAP1, ASAP3 did not localize to invadopodia or podosomes. Cells, derived from a mammary carcinoma and from a glioblastoma, with reduced ASAP3 expression had fewer actin stress fiber, reduced levels of phosphomyosin, and migrated more slowly than control cells. Reducing ASAP3 expression also slowed invasion of mammary carcinoma cells. In contrast, reduction of ASAP1 expression had no effect on migration or invasion. We propose that ASAP3 functions nonredundantly with ASAP1 to control cell movement and may have a role in cancer cell invasion. In comparing ASAP1 and ASAP3, we also found that invadopodia are dispensable for the invasive behavior of cells derived from a mammary carcinoma.
"These kinases were chosen because (1) their endogenous activity can be both induced and inhibited pharmacologically and (2) the phosphorylation of their substrates can be readily detected using commercially available antibodies. For instance, in the first round of validation experiments, we observed that DDEFL1/ASAP3, a GTPase activating protein involved in cell differentiation and migration (Ha et al, 2008), underwent a PKC-dependent increase in its protein levels (Figure 2B, top panel). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The landscape of human phosphorylation networks has not been systematically explored, representing vast, unchartered territories within cellular signaling networks. Although a large number of in vivo phosphorylated residues have been identified by mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches, assigning the upstream kinases to these residues requires biochemical analysis of kinase-substrate relationships (KSRs). Here, we developed a new strategy, called CEASAR, based on functional protein microarrays and bioinformatics to experimentally identify substrates for 289 unique kinases, resulting in 3656 high-quality KSRs. We then generated consensus phosphorylation motifs for each of the kinases and integrated this information, along with information about in vivo phosphorylation sites determined by MS, to construct a high-resolution map of phosphorylation networks that connects 230 kinases to 2591 in vivo phosphorylation sites in 652 substrates. The value of this data set is demonstrated through the discovery of a new role for PKA downstream of Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) during B-cell receptor signaling. Overall, these studies provide global insights into kinase-mediated signaling pathways and promise to advance our understanding of cellular signaling processes in humans.
Molecular Systems Biology 04/2013; 9(1):655. DOI:10.1038/msb.2013.12 · 10.87 Impact Factor
"ASAP3, which is closely related to ASAP1, is associated with focal adhesions and circular dorsal ruffles, but is not localized to podosomes . The reduction of ASAP3 expression results in fewer actin stress fibers, reduced levels of phosphorylated myosin, and slower cell migration and invasion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cells have complicated membrane systems. The outermost plasma membrane contains various substructures, such as invaginations and protrusions, which are involved in endocytosis and cell migration. Moreover, the intracellular membrane compartments, such as autophagosomes and endosomes, are essential for cellular viability. The Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs167 (BAR) domain superfamily proteins are important players in membrane remodeling through their structurally determined membrane binding surfaces. A variety of BAR domain superfamily proteins exist, and each family member appears to be involved in the formation of certain subcellular structures or intracellular membrane compartments. Most of the BAR domain superfamily proteins contain SH3 domains, which bind to the membrane scission molecule, dynamin, as well as the actin regulatory WASP/WAVE proteins and several signal transduction molecules, providing possible links between the membrane and the cytoskeleton or other machineries. In this review, we summarize the current information about each BAR superfamily protein with an SH3 domain(s). The involvement of BAR domain superfamily proteins in various diseases is also discussed.
"Thus, we wanted to investigate if calcium can have an additive effect in such a scenario. GTPase activity measurements of membrane-bound ASAP3 and Arf have been done with liposomes containing phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and PI(4,5)P 2 (Ha et al., 2008). Unfortunately, PI and PS bind divalent cations such as calcium, sequestering them from solution and aggregating the liposomes (Fraley et al., 1980; Janmey et al., 1987). "
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