The yeast SM22 homologue Scp1 has previously been shown to act as an actin-bundling protein in vitro. In cells, Scp1 localizes to the cortical actin patches that form as part of the invagination process during endocytosis, and its function overlaps with that of the well characterized yeast fimbrin homologue Sac6p. In this work we have used live cell imaging to demonstrate the importance of key residues in the Scp1 actin interface. We have defined two actin binding domains within Scp1 that allow the protein to both bind and bundle actin without the need for dimerization. Green fluorescent protein-tagged mutants of Scp1 also indicate that actin localization does not require the putative phosphorylation site Ser-185 to be functional. Deletion of SCP1 has few discernable effects on cell growth and morphology. However, we reveal that scp1 deletion is compensated for by up-regulation of Sac6. Furthermore, Scp1 levels are increased in the absence of sac6. The presence of compensatory pathways to up-regulate Sac6 or Scp1 levels in the absence of the other suggest that maintenance of sufficient bundling activity is critical within the cell. Analysis of cortical patch assembly and movement during endocytosis reveals a previously undetected role for Scp1 in movement of patches away from the plasma membrane. Additionally, we observe a dramatic increase in patch lifetime in a strain lacking both sac6 and scp1, demonstrating the central role played by actin-bundling proteins in the endocytic process.
"Sac6 is the yeast fimbrin homologue and is an actin bundling protein. Its ability to bind actin is necessary for invagination to occur , , . The bundling of filaments is considered to make a stronger structure to allow invagination to occur against the effect of turgor pressure . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a well characterized pathway in both yeast and mammalian cells. An increasing number of alternative endocytic pathways have now been described in mammalian cells that can be both clathrin, actin, and Arf6- dependent or independent. In yeast, a single clathrin-mediated pathway has been characterized in detail. However, disruption of this pathway in many mutant strains indicates that other uptake pathways might exist, at least for bulk lipid and fluid internalization. Using a combination of genetics and live cell imaging, here we show evidence for a novel endocytic pathway in S. cerevisiae that does not involve several of the proteins previously shown to be associated with the 'classic' pathway of endocytosis. This alternative pathway functions in the presence of low levels of the actin-disrupting drug latrunculin-A which inhibits movement of the proteins Sla1, Sla2, and Sac6, and is independent of dynamin function. We reveal that in the absence of the 'classic' pathway, the actin binding protein Abp1 is now essential for bulk endocytosis. This novel pathway appears to be distinct from another described alternative endocytic route in S. cerevisiae as it involves at least some proteins known to be associated with cortical actin patches rather than being mediated at formin-dependent endocytic sites. These data indicate that cells have the capacity to use overlapping sets of components to facilitate endocytosis under a range of conditions.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103311. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103311 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"These changes are consistent with increases or decreases in the overall actin bundling activity in the cell resulting in decreased or increased actin dynamics respectively. Studies in yeast have revealed similar consequences for the effects of Scp1p, the yeast homologue of SM22, in actin dynamics and actin dependent processes such as endocytosis [11,12,28]. The actin binding and bundling activity of SM22 and related proteins is conferred via sequences c-terminal of the calponin homology (CH) domain including a short linker peptide and one to three calponin-like or 'CLIK23' repeats . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SM22 has long been studied as an actin-associated protein. Interestingly, levels of SM22 are often reduced in tumour cell lines, while they are increased during senescence possibly indicating a role for SM22 in cell fate decisions via its interaction with actin. In this study we aimed to determine whether reducing levels of SM22 could actively contribute to a tumourigenic phenotype.
We demonstrate that in REF52 fibroblasts, decreased levels of SM22 disrupt normal actin organization leading to changes in the motile behaviour of cells. Interestingly, SM22 depletion also led to an increase in the capacity of cells to spontaneously form podosomes with a concomitant increase in the ability to invade Matrigel. In PC3 prostate epithelial cancer cells by contrast, where SM22 is undetectable, re-expression of SM22 reduced the ability to invade Matrigel. Furthermore SM22 depleted cells also had reduced levels of reactive oxygen species when under serum starvation stress.
These findings suggest that depletion of SM22 could contribute to tumourigenic properties of cells. Reduction in SM22 levels would tend to promote cell survival when cells are under stress, such as in a hypoxic tumour environment, and may also contribute to increases in actin dynamics that favour metastatic potential.
"In our strain background, however, the fluid phase defect of ede1⌬ cells was limited, and there was no detectable defect in either process when SYP1 was deleted alone or in combination with EDE1 (Supplemental Figure S1). Previously, the detection of defects in endocytic dynamics has uncovered core endocytic roles for proteins without detectable uptake defects (Kaksonen et al., 2003; Gheorghe et al., 2008; Robertson et al., 2009), and so we next analyzed the effects of Syp1p and Ede1p on individual endocytic sites. To ensure that we assayed global changes in the endocytic machinery and not defects in recruitment of individual proteins , we analyzed lifetimes of several patch proteins in syp1⌬ and ede1⌬ cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed the detailed timing of protein recruitment to endocytic sites in budding yeast. However, little is understood about the early stages of their formation. Here we identify the septin-associated protein Syp1p as a component of the machinery that drives clathrin-mediated endocytosis in budding yeast. Syp1p arrives at endocytic sites early in their formation and shares unique dynamics with the EH-domain protein Ede1p. We find that Syp1p is related in amino acid sequence to several mammalian proteins one of which, SGIP1-alpha, is an endocytic component that binds the Ede1p homolog Eps15. Like Syp1p, SGIP1-alpha arrives early at sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, suggesting that Syp1p/Ede1p and SGIP1-alpha/Eps15 may have a conserved function. In yeast, both Syp1p and Ede1p play important roles in the rate of endocytic site turnover. Additionally, Ede1p is important for endocytic site formation, whereas Syp1p acts as a polarized factor that recruits both Ede1p and endocytic sites to the necks of emerging buds. Thus Ede1p and Syp1p are conserved, early-arriving endocytic proteins with roles in the formation and placement of endocytic sites, respectively.
Molecular biology of the cell 09/2009; 20(22):4640-51. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E09-05-0429 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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