Article

Predictors of iron status in well-nourished 4-y-old children.

Department of Food and Nutrition and the Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 05/2008; 87(4):839-45.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Iron status in childhood is influenced by diet. Other factors affecting iron status at that age are unclear.
The objectives of the study were to evaluate iron status in 4-y-old children, to track that status from infancy to childhood, and to examine the associations of iron status with dietary factors, growth, and heredity.
This study consisted of a longitudinal follow-up at age 4 y of children (n = 127) from the cohort of a study that began at age 6 mo. Blood samples and anthropometry were assessed in both children and their parents; food records were collected from children only.
Dietary intake was not significantly correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, whereas the consumption of meat products had a positive effect on serum ferritin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume in boys (P = 0.015 and 0.04, respectively). The prevalences of anemia and iron deficiency were low, affecting 2 (1.8%) and 3 (2.8%) children, respectively; no child had iron deficiency anemia. There was significant within-subject tracking of hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume from age 6 mo to 4 y. The mother's but not the father's hemoglobin correlated with the child's hemoglobin over time.
Food choices had little effect on iron status. Hemoglobin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume were tracked from infancy to childhood. In healthy, well-nourished children with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, the mother's hemoglobin was significantly associated with that of her child, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.

Full-text

Available from: Olle Hernell, Jun 11, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
118 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hemoglobin and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) tests are commonly used to screen for iron deficiency, but little research has been done to systematically evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these two tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc protoporphyrin/heme (ZPP/H) ratio as a point-of-service screening test for iron deficiency among preschool-aged children by comparing the sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin, ZPP/H ratio, and serum ferritin (SF). Also completed were assessments for the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with indicators of ferritin models. This study was carried out with 95 children ages 3 to 6 y. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, SF, transferrin saturation (TS), and ZPP. Anemia was common and the prevalences of anemia, ID, and IDA were 14.7%, 12.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. The ZPP/H ratio was strongly and significantly correlated with hemoglobin. And ZPP/H ratio was a more sensitive test for ID than hemoglobin or SF measurement, correctly identifying more than twice as many iron-deficient children (sensitivity of 91.7%, compared to 41.7% for hemoglobin and SF). However, ZPP/H ratio had lower specificity (60.2%, compared to 89.1% for hemoglobin or 96.4% for SF) and resulted in the false identification of more subjects who actually were not iron deficient than did hemoglobin or SF. Low hemoglobin concentration is a late-stage indicator of ID, but ZPP/H ratio can detect ID at early stages and can be performed easily at a relatively low cost. Therefore, ZPP/H ratio can serve as a potential screening test for pre-anemic iron deficiency in community pediatric practices.
    Nutrition research and practice 02/2011; 5(1):40-5. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.1.40 · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Scoliosis is a 3-dimensional deformity. Today, the use of orthesis for medium and light degree of deformities is one of the most widely applied treatment models. There are many question marks regarding the application of the best orthesis. The use and effectiveness of orthesis has still been discussed. Today, with industrial new generation orthesis in addition to the developments in CAD/CAM and computer-ized biomechanical simulation technologies, the treatment of deformity has become possible by providing optimal biomechanical efficiency. The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness of two different orthesis design technique in conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Method: The study included 28 patients with scoliosis (22 females and 6 males, mean age 15.8) whose follow-up was retrospectively complete for the study. Patients were divid-ed into 2 groups. The first group: It was consisted of 16 patients who were treated with TLSO type prepared by using the standard design methods. Second group: It was consist-ed of 12 patients for whom orthesis which were carried out with 3-dimensional finite element model as biomechanics of the individual geometry in design and production process and CAD/CAM software (Rodin4®) were used. At the begin-ning and sixth month follow-up of patients, their Cobb's angles were measured by taking a standing x-ray of them with long cassette. Results: At the end of six months,while improvements at Cobb's angle in thoracic-lumbar deviousness in the first group were 18%-22%,in the second group,they were obser-ved as 29%-42% (p <0.05). The second group of cobb’s ang-les and patient comfort showed significantly better results. Conclusion: These first results suggests that new generation orthesis can be more effective on the conservative treat-ment of scoliosis. We believe that this method will give us direction to understand and improve the orthesis biomec-hanics.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study of 292 primary school children was conducted in rural Vietnam to investigate the relationship among micronutrient deficiencies, and other risk factors for anemia. Serum levels of iron, copper, zinc, selenium and magnesium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and that of retinol by high performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin concentration in whole blood was measured by the cyanmethemoglobin method. The incidence of low serum zinc, selenium, magnesium, and copper in the children was 91.4, 75.6, 59.5, and 8.6%, respectively. Forty-five percent of the children were anemic and 11.3% suffered from vitamin A deficiency. A parameter significant associated with anemia was low serum selenium and vice versa (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06-3.24, p<0.05). Other factors associated with anemia were serum retinol <1.05 micromol/L (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.25-3.36, p<0.01), and age in years (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.16-2.18, p<0.01). The study showed that low selenium is associated with anemia among school children in Vietnam. Interventions are required to gain insight into the potential role of selenium on prevention and control of anemia.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 12/2008; 54(6):454-9. DOI:10.3177/jnsv.54.454 · 0.87 Impact Factor