Beta-blockers in the management of hypertension: focus on nebivolol.
ABSTRACT Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor but most patients remain asymptomatic for many years. Successful therapy not only needs to be effective, it also needs to be well tolerated. beta-blockers are well established as effective antihypertensive agents. However, one major drawback to the currently available beta-blockers, particularly the noncardioselective beta-blockers, is their side-effect profile, including sexual dysfunction, fatigue, depression and metabolic abnormalities such as impaired glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities. Nebivolol (Bystolic), a novel, highly cardioselective, third-generation beta-blocker that recently received approval by the US FDA for the treatment of hypertension in the USA, is effective in treating blood pressure and has a favorable side-effect profile. Studies conducted in Europe, where nebivolol has been available for some time for the treatment of hypertension, have shown that nebivolol achieves blood pressure reductions comparable to other beta-blockers but with fewer side effects. Additionally, nebivolol has demonstrated similar efficacy in blood pressure reduction when compared with calcium channel blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. When combined with hydrochlorothiazide there was an additive antihypertensive effect. Lastly, nebivolol exhibits a vasodilatory property that is related to its effect on nitric oxide, an intrinsic vasodilator produced in the vascular endothelium. Nebivolol enhances nitric oxide bioavailability. Studies have also demonstrated nebivolol's ability to function as an antioxidant and decrease markers of oxidative stress. These effects are believed to ultimately produce a modulation of the endothelial dysfunction typically seen in hypertension.
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ABSTRACT: β-Blockers (BBs) are an essential class of cardiovascular medications for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). However, a large body of data indicates that BBs should not be used as first-line therapy for hypertension (HTN). Additionally, new data have questioned the role of BBs in the treatment of stable coronary heart disease (CHD). However, these trials mainly tested the non-vasodilating β1 selective BBs (atenolol and metoprolol) which are still the most commonly prescribed BBs in the USA. Newer generation BBs, such as the vasodilating BBs carvedilol and nebivolol, have been shown not only to be better tolerated than non-vasodilating BBs, but also these agents do not increase the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), atherogenic dyslipidaemia or weight gain. Moreover, carvedilol has the most evidence for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with HF and those who have experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This review discusses the cornerstone clinical trials that have tested BBs in the settings of HTN, HF and AMI. Large randomised trials in the settings of HTN, DM and stable CHD are still needed to establish the role of BBs in these diseases, as well as to determine whether vasodilating BBs are exempt from the disadvantages of non-vasodilating BBs.01/2015; 2(1):e000230. DOI:10.1136/openhrt-2014-000230
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ABSTRACT: Nebivolol is a highly selective beta-blocker with additional vasodilator properties, widely used in the clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Paroxetine is a second-generation antidepressant and a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6, the same isoenzyme involved in the metabolism of nebivolol. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multiple-dose paroxetine intake on the pharmacokinetics of nebivolol in healthy volunteers and its potential consequences upon nebivolol pharmacodynamics.Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2014; 39(5). DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12180 · 1.53 Impact Factor