Facet asymmetry in normal vertebral growth: characterization and etiologic theory of scoliosis.
ABSTRACT The shape and orientation of the thoracic and lumbar zygapophyseal facets at the T1-L5 level in children were measured and analyzed.
To detect the pattern of zygapophyseal facet asymmetry in the thoracic and lumbar spines in children.
Whereas many studies have defined the pattern of zygapophyseal facet asymmetry in adults, there is insufficient data in children.
A 3-dimensional digitizer was used to measure zygapophyseal facet size, topography (length, width, concavity, convexity, and lateral interfacet height), and orientation (transverse and sagittal facet angles) at the T1-L5 level. Thirty-two complete, nonpathologic skeletons of children (age range from 4 to 17 years), housed at the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH) were assessed. Statistical analysis included paired t tests and analysis of variance.
In general, zygapophyseal facet asymmetry in children exists only in the superior facets of the thoracic spine and is independent of age: The right superior facet is significantly shorter than the left in all thoracic vertebrae T1-T12 (up to -2.91 mm at T1), and significantly wider than the left in thoracic vertebrae T1-T9 (T8 excluded) (P < 0.003). The right superior transverse and sagittal facet angles are significantly greater than the left in thoracic vertebrae T1-T11, indicating a lesser inclination (in the sagittal plane) and more frontally positioned facet (in the transverse plane) (P < 0.003). Facet asymmetry was not evident in the superior or inferior facets of the lumbar vertebrae.
Facet asymmetry in thoracic vertebrae appears in early childhood. The pattern of this asymmetry differs from that reported for adults and may be considered as a possible contributing etiological factor in the development of different types of idiopathic scoliosis.
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ABSTRACT: Behavioural lateralisation is a common feature of everyday behaviour, most familiar in the exhibition of handedness. Despite differing theories about the origins of laterality, little is known about their ontogenesis. This study observed the left and right arm movements of 72 foetuses at 10 weeks of gestational age, the first age at which lateralised behaviour may be observed. There was a highly significant preference for foetuses to move their right arm more than their left arm, 85% exhibiting more right arm than left arm movements. There was no difference in the amount of movements exhibited with the preferred arm, whether it be right or left. Laterality of behaviour at such an early gestational age (probably as early as it is possible for it to be observed) is unlikely to be under brain control but is probably of more muscular or spinal determination. The possibility that early differential motor behaviour may contribute to subsequent laterality of behaviour and asymmetrical brain growth, must be considered.Neuropsychologia 07/1998; 36(6):531-4. · 3.48 Impact Factor
Article: Handedness in the human fetus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The developmental origins of behavioural asymmetries, in particular handedness, have aroused considerable interest and debate. Until now such behavioural asymmetries have only been reported after birth. Here we report the existence of handedness before birth, expressed in terms of thumb-sucking by the fetus. Ultrasound observations of fetuses from 15 weeks to term revealed a marked bias for sucking the thumb of the right hand. This preference appears to be maintained throughout pregnancy, is unrelated to fetal position in utero but correlates with head position preference in the supine newborn. The findings indicate that handedness is present prior to birth and the implications of this for the development of laterality are discussed.Neuropsychologia 02/1991; 29(11):1107-11. · 3.48 Impact Factor
- Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 05/1967; 10(2):179-85. · 1.63 Impact Factor