Massive transfusion in trauma patients: Tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation predicts poor outcome
ABSTRACT Severely bleeding trauma patients requiring massive transfusion (MT) often experience poor outcomes. Our purpose was to determine the potential role of near infrared spectrometry derived tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) monitoring in early prediction of MT, and in the identification of those MT patients who will have poor outcomes.
Data from a prospective multi-institution StO2 monitoring study were analyzed to determine the current epidemiology of MT (defined as transfusion volume >/=10 units packed red blood cells in 24 hours of hospitalization). Multivariate logistic regression was used to develop prediction models.
Seven US level I trauma centers (TC) enrolled 383 patients. 114 (30%) required MT. MT progressed rapidly (40% exceeded MT threshold 2 hours after TC arrival, 80% after 6 hours). One third of MT patients died. Two thirds of deaths were due to early exsanguination and two thirds of early exsanguination patients died within 6 hours. One third of the early MT survivors developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. MT could be predicted with standard, readily available clinical data within 30 minutes and 60 minutes of TC arrival (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78 and 0.80). In patients who required MT, StO2 was the only consistent predictor of poor outcome (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or death).
MT progresses rapidly to significant morbidity and mortality despite level I TC care. Patients who require MT can be predicted early, and persistent low StO2 identifies those MT patients destined to have poor outcome. The ultimate goal is to identify these high risk patients as early as possible to test new strategies to improve outcome. Further validation studies are needed to analyze appropriate allocation and study appropriate use of damage control interventions.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Peter Rhee, May 13, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Early alterations in tissue oxygenation may worsen patient outcome following traumatic haemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that muscle oxygenation measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on admission could be associated with subsequent change in the SOFA score after resuscitation. Methods The study was conducted in two Level I trauma centres and included 54 consecutive trauma patients with haemorrhagic shock, presenting within 6 hours of injury. Baseline tissue haemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) in the thenar eminence muscle and StO2 changes during a vascular occlusion test (VOT) were determined at 6 hours (H6) and 72 hours (H72) after the admission to the emergency room. Patients showing an improved SOFA score at H72 (SOFA improvers) were compared to those for whom it was unchanged or worse (SOFA non-improvers). Results Of the 54 patients, 34 patients were SOFA improvers and 20 SOFA non-improvers. They had comparable injury severity scores on admission. SOFA improvers had higher baseline StO2 values and a steeper StO2 desaturation slope at H6 compared to the SOFA non-improvers. These StO2 variables similarly correlated with the intra-hospital mortality. The StO2 reperfusion slope at H6 was similar between the two groups of patients. Conclusions Differences in StO2 parameters on admission of traumatic haemorrhagic shock were found between patients who had an improvement in organ failure in the first 72 hours and those who had unchanged or worse conditions. The use of NIRS to guide the initial management of trauma patients with haemorrhagic shock warrants further investigations.Critical Care 04/2015; 19(1). DOI:10.1186/s13054-015-0854-4 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: According to current critical care management guidelines, the overall hemodynamic optimization process seeks to restore macrocirculatory oxygenation, pressure, and flow variables. However, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that, despite normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations might occur, and persistence of these alterations has been associated with worse prognosis. Such observations have led to great interest in testing new technologies capable of evaluating the microcirculation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and has been proposed as a noninvasive system for monitoring regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on NIRS and its potential clinical utility in different scenarios of critically ill patients.08/2013; 2013:502194. DOI:10.1155/2013/502194
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ABSTRACT: Hypovolemia and hypovolemic shock are life-threatening conditions that occur in numerous clinical scenarios. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely explored, successfully and unsuccessfully, in an attempt to use it as an early detector of hypovolemia by measuring tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). In order to investigate the measurement site dependence and probe dependence of NIRS in response to hemodynamic changes, such as hypovolemia, we applied a simple cardiovascular challenge: a posture change from supine to upright, causing a decrease in stroke volume (as in hypovolemia) and a heart rate increase in combination with peripheral vasoconstriction to maintain adequate blood pressure. Multi-depth NIRS was used in nine healthy volunteers to assess changes in StO2 in the thenar and forearm in response to the hemodynamic changes associated with a posture change from supine to upright. A posture change from supine to upright resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.001) in heart rate. Thenar StO2 did not respond to the hemodynamic changes following the posture change, whereas forearm StO2 did. Forearm StO2 was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the upright position compared to supine for all probing depths. The primary findings in this study were that forearm StO2 is a more sensitive parameter to hemodynamic changes than thenar StO2 and that the depth at which StO2 is measured is of minor influence. Our data support the use of forearm StO2 as a sensitive parameter for the detection of central hypovolemia and hypovolemic shock in (trauma) patients.Critical care (London, England) 11/2009; 13 Suppl 5(Suppl 5):S5. DOI:10.1186/cc8003