Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users

National Institute on Aging, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, USA.
BMC Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.21). 02/2008; 8(1):22. DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-22
Source: PubMed


Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present study compares the personality profile of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin users and non-users using the wide spectrum Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality in a diverse community sample.
Participants (N = 1,102; mean age = 57) were part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) program in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample was drawn from a community with a wide range of socio-economic conditions. Personality traits were assessed with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and psychoactive substance use was assessed with systematic interview.
Compared to never smokers, current cigarette smokers score lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism. Similar, but more extreme, is the profile of cocaine/heroin users, which score very high on Neuroticism, especially Vulnerability, and very low on Conscientiousness, particularly Competence, Achievement-Striving, and Deliberation. By contrast, marijuana users score high on Openness to Experience, average on Neuroticism, but low on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.
In addition to confirming high levels of negative affect and impulsive traits, this study highlights the links between drug use and low Conscientiousness. These links provide insight into the etiology of drug use and have implications for public health interventions.

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    • "Addiction is commonly allied with distinct behavioral traits, co-morbid psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment (Rogers & Robbins, 2001). In particular, the traits of anxiety, sensation-seeking and impulsivity are strongly linked with drug abuse (Franques et al., 2000, Sher et al., 2000, Terracciano et al., 2008, Zuckerman, 1986) and often preferentially to specific classes of abused drug (Ball et al., 1998, Clapper et al., 1994, Conway et al., 2002, Franques et al., 2000, Gossop, 1978, Greene et al., 1993, Labouvie & Mcgee, 1986, Schinka et al., 1994, Terracciano et al., 2008, Zuckerman, 1986). However, in individuals addicted to drugs, where more than one drug is frequently abused, it is almost impossible to disambiguate the causal trajectory of premorbid, drug-naïve, traits from the effects of on-going drug use itself (Rogers & Robbins, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Drug addiction is widely recognised to afflict some but not all individuals by virtue of underlying risk markers and traits involving multifaceted interactions between polygenic and external factors. Remarkably, only a small proportion of individuals exposed to licit and illicit drugs develop compulsive drug seeking behavior, maintained in the face of adverse consequences, and associated detrimental patterns of drug intake involving extended and repeated bouts of binge intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse. As a consequence research has increasingly endeavoured to identify distinctive neurobehavioral mechanisms and endophenotypes that predispose individuals to compulsive drug use. However, research in active drug users is hampered by the difficulty in categorising putatively causal behavioral traits prior to the initiation of drug use. By contrast, research in experimental animals is often hindered by the validity of approaches used to investigate the neural and psychological mechanisms of compulsive drug-seeking habits in humans. Herein, we survey and discuss the principal findings emanating from preclinical animal research on addiction and highlight how specific behavioral endophenotypes of presumed genetic origin (e.g. trait anxiety, novelty preference and impulsivity) differentially contribute to compulsive forms of drug seeking and taking and, in particular, how these differentiate between different classes of stimulant and non-stimulant drugs of abuse.
    Genes Brain and Behavior 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/gbb.12265 · 3.66 Impact Factor
    • ") and lower scores in Selfdirectedness and Cooperativeness, with a greater tendency for impulsive behaviors not based on goals (Liraud and Verdoux, 2000; Le Bon et al., 2004; Spalletta et al., 2007; Terracciano et al., 2008; Lukasiewicz et al., 2009; Angres et al., 2013). Some studies have also found Harm Avoidance high scores in SUD patients compared to general population samples (Vaidya and Garfield, 2003; Barron et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2007) as well as in SMI in relation to healthy controls (Hori et al., 2008; Latalova et al., 2013; Teraishi et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dual diagnosis (DD) is the coexistence of a substance use disorder (SUD) and severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study is to determine for the first time if a specific personality pattern exists for DD patients compared to those who only have SUD or SMI. The sample was composed of 102 male, 34 patients in each group (DD, SUD and SMI). DD and SMI groups included 20 schizophrenic and 14 depressed patients respectively. Cloninger׳s TCI-R was administered together with a structured interview of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. All the temperament dimensions and Self-directedness provided differences among groups. The DD and SUD showed significant higher scores in Novelty Seeking regarding SMI, whereas for Harm Avoidance the SUD subjects scored lower with respect to the DD and SMI group. Persistence was significant lower for the DD and SMI groups compared to the SUD patients. The DD obtained low significant scores in Reward Dependence in relation to the SUD and Self-directedness in relation to the SUD and SMI. Our data highlight the presence of a different personality profiles among DD, SUD and SMI disorders. Taking into account the patients׳ personality can benefit the clinical course and minimize the DD impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.059 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "Neuroticism has been identified as one of the most robust factors characterizing the drug-dependent population [37], [38]. This relationship is consistent using the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) [24], the Eysenk Personality Profile (EPQ) [25], or the NEO-PI [26], [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms, which has been correlated with more severe addiction and aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the nature of the relationship between personality traits and psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent patients. This study examined the relationship between neuroticism and cocaine-induced psychosis. Methods A total of 231 cocaine-dependent patients seeking treatment were recruited to the study. Personality was evaluated by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Cocaine-induced psychosis questionnaire, SCID-I, and SCID-II were used to evaluate comorbidity and clinical characteristics. Data analysis was performed in three steps: descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. Results Cocaine-induced psychosis was reported in 65.4% of the patients and some personality disorder in 46.8%. Two personality dimensions (Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility) presented a significant effect on the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms (t(229) = 2.69, p = 0.008; t(229) = 2.06, p = 0.004), and patients with psychotic symptoms showed higher scores in both variables. On the multivariate analysis, only Neuroticism remained as a significant personality factor independently associated with psychotic symptoms (Wald = 7.44, p<0.05, OR = 1.08, CI 95% 1.02–1.16) after controlling for age, gender and number of consumption substances. Conclusions An association between high neuroticism scores and presence of psychotic symptoms induced by cocaine has been found, independently of other consumption variables. Personality dimensions should be evaluated in cocaine-dependent patients in order to detect high scores of neuroticism and warn patients about the risk of developing cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106111. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106111 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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