Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users

National Institute on Aging, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, USA.
BMC Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.24). 02/2008; 8(1):22. DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-22
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present study compares the personality profile of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin users and non-users using the wide spectrum Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality in a diverse community sample.
Participants (N = 1,102; mean age = 57) were part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) program in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample was drawn from a community with a wide range of socio-economic conditions. Personality traits were assessed with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and psychoactive substance use was assessed with systematic interview.
Compared to never smokers, current cigarette smokers score lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism. Similar, but more extreme, is the profile of cocaine/heroin users, which score very high on Neuroticism, especially Vulnerability, and very low on Conscientiousness, particularly Competence, Achievement-Striving, and Deliberation. By contrast, marijuana users score high on Openness to Experience, average on Neuroticism, but low on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.
In addition to confirming high levels of negative affect and impulsive traits, this study highlights the links between drug use and low Conscientiousness. These links provide insight into the etiology of drug use and have implications for public health interventions.

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    • "Neuroticism has been identified as one of the most robust factors characterizing the drug-dependent population [37], [38]. This relationship is consistent using the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) [24], the Eysenk Personality Profile (EPQ) [25], or the NEO-PI [26], [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms, which has been correlated with more severe addiction and aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the nature of the relationship between personality traits and psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent patients. This study examined the relationship between neuroticism and cocaine-induced psychosis. Methods A total of 231 cocaine-dependent patients seeking treatment were recruited to the study. Personality was evaluated by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Cocaine-induced psychosis questionnaire, SCID-I, and SCID-II were used to evaluate comorbidity and clinical characteristics. Data analysis was performed in three steps: descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. Results Cocaine-induced psychosis was reported in 65.4% of the patients and some personality disorder in 46.8%. Two personality dimensions (Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility) presented a significant effect on the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms (t(229) = 2.69, p = 0.008; t(229) = 2.06, p = 0.004), and patients with psychotic symptoms showed higher scores in both variables. On the multivariate analysis, only Neuroticism remained as a significant personality factor independently associated with psychotic symptoms (Wald = 7.44, p<0.05, OR = 1.08, CI 95% 1.02–1.16) after controlling for age, gender and number of consumption substances. Conclusions An association between high neuroticism scores and presence of psychotic symptoms induced by cocaine has been found, independently of other consumption variables. Personality dimensions should be evaluated in cocaine-dependent patients in order to detect high scores of neuroticism and warn patients about the risk of developing cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106111. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106111 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Substance use disorders are heterogeneous with regard to etiology, liability for addiction and response to treatment (Agrawal and Lynskey, 2008; Ducci and Goldman, 2012). Several risk factors have been identified, including personality traits such as sensation seeking and impulsivity (Labouvie and Mcgee, 1986; Conway et al., 2002; Franques et al., 2003; Terracciano et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 07/2014; 8:236. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00236 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    • "Another study categorized respondents as either using marijuana 1–19 times, or more than 20 times, in their lifetime (Flory et al. 2002). Another study simply compared users to abstainers without considering the amount and frequency of drug use (Terracciano et al. 2008). This is limiting because heavy cannabis use is associated with greater adverse outcomes, including depression (Fergusson et al. 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance world-wide. Marijuana use is especially prevalent among college and university students and has been associated with both positive and negative well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between the frequency of marijuana use, negative consequences resulting from drug use, well-being, and personality. Undergraduates (N = 570) completed online measures of marijuana use, negative consequences (using a modified form of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index), well-being (happiness, life satisfaction, depression, and positive and negative affect), and personality (using the NEO-PI-R). Rates of marijuana use were higher than those reported in many previous studies. Males reported using marijuana more frequently and using greater amounts than females. Frequency of marijuana use was not associated with well-being. However, negative consequences resulting from drug use were positively correlated with negative well-being, and negatively correlated with positive well-being. People low in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were more likely to use marijuana and experience negative consequences. After controlling for personality, negative consequences did not explain any further variance in positive well-being, but explained a small amount of variance in negative well-being. After marijuana, the most commonly used drugs were hallucinogens, cocaine, ecstasy, MDMA, ketamine, Oxycontin, and prescription stimulants. The relationships between these drugs and well-being varied per individual drug. However, stimulants were consistently related to both well-being and negative consequences. Overall, marijuana use was the greatest contributor to negative consequences.
    Journal of Happiness Studies 04/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1007/s10902-013-9423-1 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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