Prolonged eosinophil production after allergen exposure in IFN-gammaR KO mice is IL-5 dependent.
ABSTRACT Asthma is a T helper 2 (Th2)-driven inflammatory process characterized by eosinophilia. Prolonged airway eosinophilia is commonly observed in asthma exacerbations. Our aim was to evaluate whether eosinophilia in prolonged allergic inflammation is associated with a continuous supply of new eosinophils to the airways, and how this is regulated. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice (IFN-gammaR KO), known to maintain a long-lasting eosinophilia after allergen exposure, were compared to wild type (wt) controls. Animals were exposed to OVA or phosphate-buffered saline on three consecutive days, and bone marrow (BM), blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected 24 h, 7 and 21 days later. Newly produced cells were labelled using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Serum IL-5 was measured and its role was investigated by administration of a neutralizing anti-IL-5 antibody. In-vitro eosinophilopoiesis was examined in both groups by a colony-forming assay. Allergen challenge increased eosinophils in BM, blood and BAL, in both IFN-gammaR KO and wt mice, both 24 h and 7 days after the last allergen exposure. At 21 days after the last exposure, only IFN-gammaR KO mice maintained significantly increased eosinophil numbers. Approximately 50% of BAL granulocytes in IFN-gammaR KO were produced during the last 6 days. Interleukin (IL)-5 concentration was increased in IFN-gammaR KO mice, and anti-IL-5 reduced eosinophil numbers in all compartments. Increased numbers of eosinophil colonies were observed in IFN-gammaR KO mice after allergen exposure versus controls. In this model of a Th2-driven prolonged allergic eosinophilia, new eosinophils contribute to the extended inflammation in the airways by enhanced BM eosinophilopoiesis in an IL-5-dependent manner.
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ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin (LF) can down-regulate allergic airway inflammation in asthma. However, the in vivo effect of exogenous LF on allergic rhinitis (AR), a disease attributed to airway inflammation, has yet to be determined. We investigated the effect of intranasal administration recombinant human (rh) LF and its underlying mechanisms on AR in BALB/c mice. Multiple parameters of allergic responses were evaluated to determine the effect of rhLF. We found that the number of eosinophils and goblet cells, as well as mRNA and protein expression of type 2 helper T (Th2), Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the nasal cavity, were significantly up-regulated in AR mice compared with the controls, Conversely, administration of rhLF prior to or after intranasal ovalbumin challenge markedly down-regulated these same parameters. Th1-specific mRNA and protein expression in the nasal cavity of the controls was not different from that in AR mice, but expression significantly increased with rhLF treatment. The mRNA and protein expression of endogenous LF in the nasal cavity was significantly down-regulated in AR mice compared with the controls. However, after rhLF treatment, endogenous LF mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated. Conclusion: Exogenous rhLF inhibited allergic inflammation in AR mice, most likely by promoting the endogenous LF expression and skewing T cells to a Th1 but not a Th2 and Th17 phenotype in the nasal mucosa. Our findings suggest that rhLF treatment may be a novel therapeutic approach for prevention and treatment AR. (238 words) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 09/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) mitigate inflammation in mouse models of acute lung injury. However, specific mechanisms of BMSC actions on CD4 T lymphocyte-mediated inflammation in vivo remain poorly understood. Limited data suggests promotion of Th2 phenotype in models of Th1-mediated diseases. However, whether this might alleviate or worsen Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic asthma is unknown. To ascertain the effects of systemic administration of BMSCs in a mouse model of Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airways inflammation was induced in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as in interferon-γ (IFNγ) receptor null mice. Effects of systemic administration during antigen sensitization of either syngeneic or allogeneic BMSC on airways hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes, and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Both syngeneic and allogeneic BMSCs inhibited airways hyperreactivity and lung inflammation through a mechanism partly dependent on IFNγ. However, contrary to existing data, BMSCs did not affect antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte proliferation but rather promoted Th1 phenotype in vivo as assessed by both OVA-specific CD4 T lymphocyte cytokine production and OVA-specific circulating immunoglobulins. BMSCs treated to prevent release of soluble mediators and a control cell population of primary dermal skin fibroblasts only partly mimicked the BMSC effects and in some cases worsened inflammation. In conclusion, BMSCs inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation by influencing antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte differentiation. Promotion of a Th1 phenotype in antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes by BMSCs is sufficient to inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation through an IFNγ-dependent process.Stem Cells 05/2011; 29(7):1137-48. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Airway remodeling is a central feature of asthma. It is exemplified by thickening of the lamina reticularis and structural changes to the epithelium, submucosa, smooth muscle, and vasculature of the airway wall. Airway remodeling may result from persistent airway inflammation. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in airway inflammation and asthma-related symptoms. Anti-IgE therapies (such as omalizumab) have the potential to block an early step in the allergic cascade and therefore have the potential to reduce airway remodeling. The reduction in free IgE levels following anti-IgE therapy leads to reductions in high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) expression on mast cells, basophils, and dendritic cells. This combined effect results in attenuation of several markers of inflammation, including peripheral and bronchial tissue eosinophilia and levels of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Considering the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of anti-IgE therapy, along with results from a small study showing continued benefit after discontinuation of long-term treatment, a larger study to assess its effect on markers of airway remodeling is underway.Allergy 06/2011; 66(9):1142-51. · 5.88 Impact Factor