Toll-like Receptor Cross-hyporesponsiveness is Functional in Interleukin-1-receptor-associated Kinase-1 (IRAK-1)-deficient Macrophages: Differential Role Played by IRAK-1 in Regulation of Tumour Necrosis Factor and Interleukin-10 Production
Signalling downstream Toll-like receptors (TLR) is regulated at several levels in order to activate the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Altered intracellular signalling may be one reason that repeated stimulation of various TLRs results in hyporesponsiveness and cross-tolerance. We report that TLR cross-tolerance is inducible in the absence of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) in peritoneal macrophages. Similar to wild-type macrophages, IRAK-1-deficient macrophages respond with decreased tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production to a secondary TLR stimulation, but in opposite to IRAK-1(+/+), IRAK-1(-/-) macrophages display increased interleukin (IL)-10 production at TLR restimulation. IRAK-1-deficient peritoneal macrophages have a defective TNF and IL-10 production in response to lipoteichoic acid stimulation as well as a defective IL-10-but a normal TNF production in response to high concentration of lipopolysaccharide. Our results demonstrate that IRAK-1 is not necessary for induction of TLR cross-tolerance as judged by TNF production.
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"Once phosphorylated, IRAK-1 activates IKKβ and JNK that ultimately leads to activation of the NF-κBinduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α (Skaug et al. 2009). In support of our results, Berglund et al. (2008) reported that IRAK-1-deficient peritoneal macrophages in mice have a defective TNF-α production in response LPS stimulation. In both rat adipocytes and bovine aortic endothelial cells, IRAK1 gene expression was upregulated after incubation with TNF-α, and the expression of IRAK1 lead to an increased expression of TNF (Kim et al. 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objectives were to compare gene expression profiles in blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during a Streptococcus uberis intramammary challenge between lactating cows subjected to feed restriction to induce negative energy balance (NEB; n=5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n=5). After 5 days of feed restriction, one rear mammary quarter of each cow was inoculated with 5,000 cfu of S. uberis. Blood PMN were isolated at 24 h post-inoculation from all cows for mRNA expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 20 genes associated with immune response and metabolism. A total of 12 genes were differentially expressed in blood PMN in NEB versus PEB cows. Upregulated genes by NEB were ALOX5AP, CPNE3, IL1R2, IL6, TLR2, TLR4, and THY1, and downregulated genes were HLA-DRA, HLA-A, IRAK1, SOD1, and TNF. Network analysis revealed that TNF was associated with several of the affected genes in NEB cows compared with PEB cows. Results showed that 24 h after intramammary challenge with S. uberis, cows in NEB had altered PMN expression of genes involved with immune response. Our data provide new information on transcriptomic mechanisms associated with NEB and the corresponding inhibition of immune response in lactating dairy cows.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is important for the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferon (IFN)-inducible genes in response to bacterial and viral challenge. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) is a signaling kinase situated downstream of the adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the TLR intracellular signaling cascade and is required for normal signal transduction through this pathway. We investigated the importance of IRAK-1 in intestinal inflammation by using the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis model. We show that IRAK-1 deficient mice are protected against systemic signs of inflammation, i.e., weight loss and spleen enlargement compared to wild-type controls irrespective of gender. However, IRAK-1−/y males but not IRAK-1−/− females display significant protection against colitis and thymic atrophy compared to wild-type mice.Our results indicate a gender specific effect of IRAK-1 in the DSS-induced colitis, an interesting finding since the Irak-1 gene is located on the X-chromosome and several inflammatory diseases have a gender dependent incidence.