Changes of the corpus callosum in children who suffered perinatal injury of the periventricular crossroads of pathways.

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
Collegium antropologicum (Impact Factor: 0.61). 02/2008; 32 Suppl 1:25-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is a high incidence of periventricular leukomalacia, caused by hypoxia-ischemia, in preterm infants. These lesions damage the periventricular crossroads of commissural, projection and associative pathways, which are in a close topographical relationship with the lateral ventricles. We explored to what extent abnormalities of echogenicity of the periventricular crossroads correlate with changes in size of the corpus callosum. Our study included nine infants (gestation from 26-41 weeks; birth weight between 938-4450 grams) with perinatal brain injury. Periventricular areas, which topographically correspond to the frontal, main and occipital crossroad, were readily visualized by cranial ultrasound scans, performed during the first two weeks after birth. Corpus callosum mediosagittal area measurements were performed using magnetic resonance images, acquired between the first and sixth postnatal month (postmenstrual age 40-49 weeks). We found a statistically significant correlation between the increased echogenicity in the crossroad areas and the decrease of the corpus callosum midsagittal area (p < 0.05). This supports the hypothesis that callosal fibers can be damaged, during growth through the periventricular crossroads of pathways.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early brain injury alters both structural and functional connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres. Despite increasing knowledge on the individual hemispheric contributions to recovery from such injury, we know very little about how their interactions affect this process. In the present study, we related interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity to receptive language outcome following early left hemisphere stroke. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 14 people with neonatal brain injury, and 25 age-matched controls during passive story comprehension. With respect to structural connectivity, we found that increased volume of the corpus callosum predicted good receptive language outcome, but that this is not specific to people with injury. In contrast, we found that increased posterior superior temporal gyrus interhemispheric functional connectivity during story comprehension predicted better receptive language performance in people with early brain injury, but worse performance in typical controls. This suggests that interhemispheric functional connectivity is one potential compensatory mechanism following early injury. Further, this pattern of results suggests refinement of the prevailing notion that better language outcome following early left hemisphere injury relies on the contribution of the contralesional hemisphere (i.e., the "right-hemisphere-take-over" theory). This pattern of results was also regionally specific; connectivity of the angular gyrus predicted poorer performance in both groups, independent of brain injury. These results present a complex picture of recovery, and in some cases, such recovery relies on increased cooperation between the injured hemisphere and homologous regions in the contralesional hemisphere, but in other cases, the opposite appears to hold.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2013; 33(13):5612-5625. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The precise assessment of cerebral saturation changes during an inflammatory injury in the developing brain, such as seen in periventricular leukomalacia, is not well defined. This study investigated the impact of inflammation on locoregional cerebral oxygen saturation in a newborn rodent model using photoacoustic imaging. 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) diluted in saline or saline alone was injected under ultrasound guidance directly in the corpus callosum of P3 rat pups. Coronal photoacoustic images were carried out 24 h after LPS exposure. Locoregional oxygen saturation (SO2) and resting state connectivity were assessed in the cortex and the corpus callosum. Microvasculature was then evaluated on cryosection slices by lectin histochemistry. Significant reduction of SO2 was found in the corpus callosum; reduced SO2 was also found in the cortex ipsilateral to the injection site. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis showed that bilateral connectivity was not affected by LPS exposure. Changes in locoregional oxygen saturation were accompanied by a significant reduction in the average length of microvessels in the left cortex but no differences were observed in the corpus callosum. Inflammation in the developing brain induces marked reduction of locoregional oxygen saturation, predominantly in the white matter not explained by microvascular degeneration. The ability to examine regional saturation offers a new way to monitor injury and understand physiological disturbance non-invasively.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83045. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children.


Available from