Article

The effect of the new "24 hour alcohol licensing law" on the incidence of facial trauma in London.

Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Medical, Surgical & Diagnostic Services, UCL Eastman Dental Institute for Oral Health Care Sciences, United Kingdom.
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.72). 05/2008; 46(6):460-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2008.01.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT On 24 November 2005 the new 2003 Licensing Act was implemented. It permits licensed premises to close at different times under English and Welsh law, rather than at 2300h as under the previous law. The aim of this study was to assess whether head and neck trauma secondary to alcohol-associated assaults had increased, decreased, or stayed the same since the introduction of the act. Data were collected from the Accident and Emergency Department, University College Hospital, attendance databases for two six-month periods: 24 November 2004 to 30 April 2005, and 24 November 2005 to 30 April 2006. There were 1102 attendances for head and neck trauma secondary to alcohol-associated assaults during the six months before the introduction of the 2003 Licensing Act and 730 such attendances during the similar period after the introduction of the law, with fewer cases in each corresponding month during the later period. There were more cases at weekends than on weekdays during both periods. There were fewer cases but more at weekends in 2005-6 than in 2004-5 (423, 58% compared with 584, 53%, respectively). Neither rainfall nor temperature had any influence on the results. The 2003 licensing Act seems to have reduced the number of attendances at the A&E department for head and neck trauma secondary to alcohol associated assaults.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
78 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A prospective study on mid-face fractures was carried out in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at College of Dentistry, Indore, from August 2007 to September 2009 to analyze etiology, incidence and patterns of midface fractures and associated ocular injuries. Two hundred patients were included in this study, amongst those who reported to the Department of OMFS, College of Dentistry, Indore. After confirmed diagnosis of mid face fracture all the patients were stratified according to age, sex, cause of the accident, influence of alcohol, location, type of fractures and associated ocular injuries. The study included 200 patients with a mean age of 29.6 years. The most frequently injured patients belonged to the 21–30 year-old age group. The male predilection was 76 %. Road traffic accident was the most common causative factor (64 %), followed by assault (21 %), cases of fall (9.5 %) and other causes (5.5 %). The most common fracture in this study was found to be zygomatic complex fractures (62.5 %) (more in the age group of 21–30 years). This was followed by Lefort II fractures (23 %), multiple fractures (10 %) and Lefort I fractures (6 %), Lefort III fractures (4.5 %) and Naso-ethmoidal fractures (4 %) in descending order. 84.5 % subjects were having ocular involvement. Subconjunctival hemorrhage was present mostly in 83.5 % followed by remaining as corneal injury 15 %, reduced acuity 11.5 %, diplopia 10.5 %, enophthalmos 8.5 %, telecanthus 5 %, hyphema 3.5 %, blindness 3 % and proptosis 0.5 %. Zygomatic complex fractures were the most frequent type of injury that was complicated by blindness or a serious eye injury (61 %). Collection of data regarding the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures is important because it may assist healthcare providers to provide necessary information for the development and evaluation of preventive measures. Ocular injuries should have an early ophthalmological examination at the time of trauma to detect any kind of ocular dysfunction.
    Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: On November 24 2005, the Government of England and Wales removed regulatory restrictions on the times at which licensed premises could sell alcohol. This study tests availability theory by treating the implementation of Licensing Act (2003) as a natural experiment in alcohol policy. An interrupted time series design was employed to estimate the Act's immediate and delayed impact on violence in the City of Manchester (Population 464,200). We collected police recorded rates of violence, robbery, and total crime between the 1st of February 2004 and the 31st of December 2007. Events were aggregated by week, yielding a total of 204 observations (95 pre-, and 109 post-intervention). Secondary analysis examined changes in daily patterns of violence. Pre- and post-intervention events were separated into four three-hour segments 18∶00-20∶59, 21∶00-23.59, 00∶00-02∶59, 03∶00-05∶59. Analysis found no evidence that the Licensing Act (2003) affected the overall volume of violence. However, analyses of night-time violence found a gradual and permanent shift of weekend violence into later parts of the night. The results estimated an initial increase of 27.5% between 03∶00 to 06∶00 (ω = 0.2433, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.42), which increased to 36% by the end of the study period (δ = -0.897, 95% CI = -1.02, -0.77). This study found no evidence that a national policy increasing the physical availability of alcohol affected the overall volume of violence. There was, however, evidence suggesting that the policy may be associated with changes to patterns of violence in the early morning (3 a.m. to 6 a.m.).
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55581. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dental emergencies commonly present to EDs and primary care consultations. The medical practitioner is often ill-prepared in the primary management of dental emergencies because of a lack of education in this field of practice. A published work review covering the nature, incidence, education and training surrounding this topic is presented together with recommendations for Australian practice.
    Emergency medicine Australasia: EMA 04/2011; 23(2):142-52. · 0.99 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
6 Downloads
Available from
Jun 26, 2014