Stereoselective disposition of proton pump inhibitors
ABSTRACT It is estimated that about half of all therapeutic agents are chiral, but most of these drugs are administered in the form of the racemic mixture, i.e. a 50/50 mixture of its enantiomers. However, chirality is one of the main features of biology, and many of the processes essential for life are stereoselective, implying that two enantiomers may work differently from each other in a physiological environment. Thus, receptors or metabolizing enzymes would recognize one of the ligand enantiomers in favour of the other. With one exception, all presently marketed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)--omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole--used for the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases are racemic mixtures. The exception is esomeprazole, the S-enantiomer of omeprazole, which is the only PPI developed as a single enantiomer drug. The development of esomeprazole (an alkaline salt thereof, e.g. magnesium or sodium) was based on unique metabolic properties that clearly differentiated esomeprazole from omeprazole, the racemate. At comparable doses, these properties led to several clinical advantages, for example higher bioavailability in the majority of patients, i.e. the extensive metabolizers (EMs; 97% in Caucasian and 80-85% in Asian populations), lower exposure in poor metabolizers (PMs; 3% in Caucasian and 15-20% in Asian populations) and lower interindividual variation. For the other, i.e. racemic, PPIs there are some data available on the characteristics of the individual enantiomers, and we have therefore undertaken to analyse the current literature with the purpose of evaluating the potential benefits of developing single enantiomer drugs from lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. For lansoprazole, the plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer are lower than those of the R-enantiomer in both EMs and PMs, and, consequently, the variability in the population or between EMs and PMs is not likely to decrease with either of the lansoprazole enantiomers. Furthermore, plasma protein binding differs between the two lansoprazole enantiomers, in that the amount of the free S-enantiomer is two-fold higher than that of the R-enantiomer. This will counteract the difference seen in total plasma concentrations of the enantiomers. Also, studies using expressed human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes show that the metabolism of one enantiomer is significantly affected by the presence of the other, which is likely to result in different pharmacokinetics when administering a single enantiomer. For pantoprazole, there is a negligible difference in plasma concentrations between the two enantiomers in EMs, while the difference is substantial in PMs. The difference in AUC between PMs and EMs would decrease to some extent, but in the majority of the population the variability and efficacy would not be altered with a single enantiomer of pantoprazole. The metabolism of the enantiomers of rabeprazole displays stereoselectivity comparable to that of lansoprazole, i.e. the exposure of the R-enantiomer is higher than that of the S-enantiomer in EMs as well as in PMs, which, by analogy to lansoprazole, makes them less suitable for development of a single enantiomer drug. Furthermore, the chiral stability of the rabeprazole enantiomers may be an issue because of significant degradation of rabeprazole to its sulfide analogue, which is subject to non-stereoselective metabolic regeneration of a mixture of the two enantiomers. In conclusion, in contrast to esomeprazole, the S-enantiomer of omeprazole, minimal if any clinical advantages would be expected in developing any of the enantiomers of lansoprazole, pantoprazole, or rabeprazole as compared with their racemates.
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ABSTRACT: The application of (S)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol as NMR chiral solvating agent (CSA) for omeprazole, and three of its analogs (lanso-, panto-, and rabe-prazole) was investigated. The formation of diastereomeric host-guest complexes in solution between the CSA and the racemic substrates produced sufficient NMR signal splitting for the determination of enantiomeric excesses by (1)H- or (19)F-NMR spectroscopy. Using of hydrophobic deuterated solvents was mandatory for obtaining good enantiodiscrimination, thus suggesting the importance of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the stabilization of the complexes. The method was applied to the fast quantification of the enantiomeric purity of in-process samples of S-omeprazole.Chirality 01/2009; 22(5):472-8. DOI:10.1002/chir.20766 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that the stable isotope [(13)C]pantoprazole is O-demethylated by cytochrome P450 CYP2C19 and that the (13)CO(2) produced and exhaled in breath as a result can serve as a safe, rapid, and noninvasive phenotyping marker of CYP2C19 activity in vivo. Healthy volunteers who had been genotyped for the CYP2C19(*)2, CYP2C19(*)3, and CYP2C19(*)17 alleles were administered a single oral dose of [(13)C]pantoprazole sodium-sesquihydrate (100 mg) with 2.1 g of sodium bicarbonate. Exhaled (13)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) were measured by IR spectroscopy before (baseline) and 2.5 to 120 min after dosing. Ratios of (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) after [(13)C]pantoprazole relative to (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) at baseline were expressed as change over baseline (DOB). Maximal DOB, DOB(15) to DOB(120), and area under the DOB versus time curve (AUC(0-120) and AUC(0-infinity)) were significantly different among three genotype groups (CYP2C19(*)1/(*)1, n = 10; CYP2C19(*)1/(*)2 or CYP2C19(*)1/(*)3, n = 10; and CYP2C19(*)2/(*)2, n = 5) with predicted extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2C19, respectively (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.01); linear regression analysis indicated a gene-dose effect relationship (r(2) ranged between 0.236 and 0.522; all p < 0.05). These breath test indices were significantly lower in PMs than IMs (p < 0.05) or EMs (p < 0.01) of CYP2C19. [(13)C]Pantoprazole plasma exposure showed significant inverse correlation with breath test indices in the respective subjects (Pearson r = -0.74; p = 0.038). These feasibility data suggest that the [(13)C]pantoprazole breath test is a reliable, rapid, and noninvasive probe of CYP2C19 and seems to be a useful tool to optimize drug therapy metabolized by CYP2C19.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2009; 329(1):297-305. DOI:10.1124/jpet.108.147751 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacogenetics is the study of how interindividual variations in the DNA sequence of specific genes affect drug response. This article highlights current pharmacogenetic knowledge on important human drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) to understand the large interindividual variability in drug clearance and responses in clinical practice. The human CYP superfamily contains 57 functional genes and 58 pseudogenes, with members of the 1, 2, and 3 families playing an important role in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs, other xenobiotics, and some endogenous compounds. Polymorphisms in the CYP family may have had the most impact on the fate of therapeutic drugs. CYP2D6, 2C19, and 2C9 polymorphisms account for the most frequent variations in phase I metabolism of drugs, since almost 80% of drugs in use today are metabolized by these enzymes. Approximately 5-14% of Caucasians, 0-5% Africans, and 0-1% of Asians lack CYP2D6 activity, and these individuals are known as poor metabolizers. CYP2C9 is another clinically significant enzyme that demonstrates multiple genetic variants with a potentially functional impact on the efficacy and adverse effects of drugs that are mainly eliminated by this enzyme. Studies into the CYP2C9 polymorphism have highlighted the importance of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles. Extensive polymorphism also occurs in other CYP genes, such as CYP1A1, 2A6, 2A13, 2C8, 3A4, and 3A5. Since several of these CYPs (e.g., CYP1A1 and 1A2) play a role in the bioactivation of many procarcinogens, polymorphisms of these enzymes may contribute to the variable susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The distribution of the common variant alleles of CYP genes varies among different ethnic populations. Pharmacogenetics has the potential to achieve optimal quality use of medicines, and to improve the efficacy and safety of both prospective and currently available drugs. Further studies are warranted to explore the gene-dose, gene-concentration, and gene-response relationships for these important drug-metabolizing CYPs.Drug Metabolism Reviews 02/2009; 41(2):89-295. DOI:10.1080/03602530902843483 · 6.29 Impact Factor