There has been a long controversy as to whether subjectively 'free' decisions are determined by brain activity ahead of time. We found that the outcome of a decision can be encoded in brain activity of prefrontal and parietal cortex up to 10 s before it enters awareness. This delay presumably reflects the operation of a network of high-level control areas that begin to prepare an upcoming decision long before it enters awareness.
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"In some situations people have a certain outcome in mind because they have an explicit goal to reach a certain outcome (e.g., eating pasta). Yet, most (especially social) behavior is not planned or intentional (Bargh and Morsella, 2008; Custers and Aarts, 2010; Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998; Moskowitz, 2002; Soon et al., 2008). Still, people can experience self-agency over this 'unintentional' behavior and its consequences. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Difficulties in self-other processing lie at the core of schizophrenia and pose a problem for patients' daily social functioning. In the present selective review, we provide a framework for understanding self-other integration and distinction, and impairments herein in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we discuss classic motor prediction models in relation to mirror neuron functioning, theory of mind, mimicry, self-awareness, and self-agency phenomena. Importantly, we also discuss the role of more recent cognitive expectation models in these phenomena, and argue that these cognitive models form an essential contribution to our understanding of self-other integration and distinction. In doing so, we bring together different lines of research and connect findings from social psychology, affective neuropsychology, and psychiatry to further our understanding of when and how people integrate versus distinguish self and other, and how this goes wrong in schizophrenia patients.
"with the classifier trained on all combinations of the other three runs ( four - fold cross - validation ) . Three - dimensional accuracy maps were created from the mean probability of correct classification ( accuracy minus 50% chance level ) that was assigned to each central voxel of a searchlight cluster by the support vector classifier ( SVC ; Soon et al . , 2008 ; Bode and Haynes , 2009 ; Bode et al . , 2012 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voluntary actions require the concurrent engagement and coordinated control of complex temporal (e.g., rhythm) and ordinal motor processes. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we sought to determine the degree to which these complex motor processes are dissociable in basal ganglia and cortical networks. We employed three different finger-tapping tasks that differed in the demand on the sequential temporal rhythm or sequential ordering of submovements. Our results demonstrate that sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks were partially dissociable based on activation differences. The sequential rhythm task activated a widespread network centered around the supplementary motor area (SMA) and basal-ganglia regions including the dorsomedial putamen and caudate nucleus, while the sequential order task preferentially activated a fronto-parietal network. There was also extensive overlap between sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks, with both tasks commonly activating bilateral premotor, supplementary motor, and superior/inferior parietal cortical regions, as well as regions of the caudate/putamen of the basal ganglia and the ventro-lateral thalamus. Importantly, within the cortical regions that were active for both complex movements, MVPA could accurately classify different patterns of activation for the sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks. In the basal ganglia, however, overlapping activation for the sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks, which was found in classic motor circuits of the putamen and ventro-lateral thalamus, could not be accurately differentiated by MVPA. Overall, our results highlight the convergent architecture of the motor system, where complex motor information that is spatially distributed in the cortex converges into a more compact representation in the basal ganglia.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 08/2015; 9:421. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00421 · 2.99 Impact Factor
"that mOFC BA 10 (anterior frontopolar cortex, MNI coor- dinates5[23;59;29] [Bode et al., 2011]; MNI-coordinates5 [0;60;23]) is temporally the first to carry intention-related information [Bode et al., 2011; Soon et al., 2008] and hence is involved and showed decreased activation when a conscious decision of switching is made. A tentative explanation might be that negative response in frontopolar mOFC region represents an inhibition to switch for remitters and controls. "