"The odds ratio was 7.14 [95% CI: 2.59-19.63]. There was no difference between girls (60%) and boys (55.5%) (Manolache et al., 2009b). The types of events reported by children with alopecia areata were mostly related to school, i.e., beginning school or kindergarten, exams, change of class or school, problems with schoolmates or teachers, too many classes or homework, children feeling over-solicited (56%). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper illustrates the mechanism of the U-shaped vortex formation, which has been found by both experiments and DNS in boundary-layer transition. The main goal of this paper is to find how the U-shaped vortex is formed and further developed. According to the results obtained by our direct numerical simulation (DNS) with high order accuracy, the U-shaped vortex is part of the large coherent vortex structure. This new finding is quite different from existing theories which describe that the U-shaped vortex is a secondary vortex induced by second sweeps, and it is newly formed as the head of young turbulence spot and finally breaks down to small pieces. However, it is found that the U-shaped vortex is neither generated by the second sweeps nor the consequent positive spikes. Actually, the U-shaped vortex is induced by the secondary vortices and the solid wall. The new finding also shows the U-shaped vortex is a vortex tube but not the heading wave. In addition, it is found that the U-shaped vortex has the same vorticity sign as the original Λ-shaped vortex legs, which means the U-shaped vortex is not secondary but tertiary. It serves as an additional channel to provide vorticity to support the multiple ring-like vortices when the original vortex tube is stretched and multiple rings are generated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alopecia areata is one of the most frequent organ-restricted autoimmune diseases, yet its pathogenesis is still unclear. In addition, although alopecia areata often results in significant psychological distress, effective treatment is lacking.
New potential susceptibility loci have been implicated, but the strongest evidence points to certain class II human leukocyte antigen alleles. There is new evidence for the collapse of hair follicle immune privilege as a key step in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. There is also new basic science evidence for stress as a contributing factor in the development of alopecia areata. Few treatments for alopecia areata have been well evaluated in randomized trials.
Although multiple potential susceptibility loci have been implicated, the genetics of alopecia areata is still unclear. The role of any potential environmental contributors is also unclear. Quality evidence for efficacy of currently used treatments for alopecia areata is lacking.
Current opinion in pediatrics 07/2009; 21(4):475-80. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32832db986 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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