The miR-200 Family Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Cell Migration by Direct Targeting of E-cadherin Transcriptional Repressors ZEB1 and ZEB2
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that can regulate gene expression by interacting with multiple mRNAs and inducing either translation suppression or degradation of mRNA. Recently, several miRNAs were identified as either promoters or suppressors of metastasis. However, it is unclear in which step(s) of the multistep metastatic cascade these miRNAs play a defined functional role. To study the functional importance of miRNAs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process thought to initiate metastasis by enhancing the motility of tumor cells, we used a well established in vitro EMT assay: transforming growth factor-beta-induced EMT in NMuMG murine mammary epithelial cells. We found that members of the miR-200 family, organized as two clusters in the genome, were repressed during EMT. Overexpression of each miRNA individually or as clusters in NMuMG cells hindered EMT by enhancing E-cadherin expression through direct targeting of ZEB1 and ZEB2, which encode transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin. In the 4TO7 mouse carcinoma cell line, which expresses low levels of endogenous E-cadherin and displays a mesenchymal phenotype, ectopic expression of the miR-200 family miRNAs significantly increased E-cadherin expression and altered cell morphology to an epithelial phenotype. Furthermore, ectopic expression of each miR-200 miRNA cluster significantly reduced the in vitro motility of 4TO7 cells in migration assays. These results suggested that loss of expression of the miR-200 family members may play a critical role in the repression of E-cadherin by ZEB1 and ZEB2 during EMT, thereby enhancing migration and invasion during cancer progression.
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ABSTRACT: Metastases are the hallmark of cancer. This event is in direct relationship with the ability of cancer cells to leave the tumor mass and travel long distances within the bloodstream and/or lymphatic vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent primary brain neoplasm, is mainly characterized by a dismal prognosis. The usual fatal issue for GBM patients is a consequence of local recurrence that is observed most of the time without any distant metastases. However, it has recently been documented that GBM cells could be isolated from the bloodstream in several studies. This observation raises the question of the possible involvement of glioblastoma-circulating cells in GBM deadly recurrence by a " homing metastasis " process. Therefore, we think it is important to review the already known molecular mechanisms underlying circulating tumor cells (CTC) specific properties, emphasizing their epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) abilities and their possible involvement in tumor initiation. The idea is here to review these mechanisms and speculate on how relevant they could be applied in the forthcoming battles against GBM.Stem cell International 04/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/182985
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ABSTRACT: Discovering the regulatory relationships between microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs is an important problem that interests many biologists and medical researchers. A number of computational methods have been proposed to infer miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships, and are mostly based on the statistical associations between miRNAs and mRNAs discovered in observational data. The miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships identified by these methods can be both direct and indirect regulations. However, differentiating direct regulatory relationships from indirect ones is important for biologists in experimental designs. In this paper, we present a causal discovery based framework (called DirectTarget) to infer direct miRNA-mRNA causal regulatory relationships in heterogeneous data, including expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs, and miRNA target information. DirectTarget is applied to the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) datasets. The validation by experimentally confirmed target databases suggests that the proposed method can effectively identify direct miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships. To explore the upstream regulators of miRNA regulation, we further identify the causal feedforward patterns (CFFPs) of TF-miRNA-mRNA to provide insights into the miRNA regulation in EMT. DirectTarget has the potential to be applied to other datasets to elucidate the direct miRNA-mRNA causal regulatory relationships and to explore the regulatory patterns.Journal of Biomedical Informatics 08/2014; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.jbi.2014.08.005
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ABSTRACT: Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are common malignancies that affect almost a million people every year. The key issue in reducing mortality and morbidity associated with OSCC is to develop novel strategies to identify OSCC at an early stage. One such strategy is the identification of biomarkers. So far, more than 100 biomarkers are recognized in the detection of oral cancer and they range from proteins to nucleic acids (DNAs, RNAs). Detection of ribose nucleic acids in saliva is a recent trend in diagnosing oral cancer. Studies have shown statistically significant changes in the levels of salivary transcriptomes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. These biomarkers have displayed high sensitivity and specificity. Also, new point-of-care platforms such as oral fluid nanosensor test are now available that will soon emerge as chair-side tools for early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of salivary transcriptomes in oral cancer detection.Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam) 01/2014; 2014:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2014/450629