Cardiolipin stabilizes respiratory chain supercomplexes.
ABSTRACT Cardiolipin stabilized supercomplexes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiratory chain complexes III and IV (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase, respectively), but was not essential for their formation in the inner mitochondrial membrane because they were found also in a cardiolipin-deficient strain. Reconstitution with cardiolipin largely restored wild-type stability. The putative interface of complexes III and IV comprises transmembrane helices of cytochromes b and c1 and tightly bound cardiolipin. Subunits Rip1p, Qcr6p, Qcr9p, Qcr10p, Cox8p, Cox12p, and Cox13p and cytochrome c were not essential for the assembly of supercomplexes; and in the absence of Qcr6p, the formation of supercomplexes was even promoted. An additional marked effect of cardiolipin concerns cytochrome c oxidase. We show that a cardiolipin-deficient strain harbored almost inactive resting cytochrome c oxidase in the membrane. Transition to the fully active pulsed state occurred on a minute time scale.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiolipins (CLs) are important biologically for their unique role in biomembranes that couple phosphorylation and electron transport like bacterial plasma membranes, chromatophores, chloroplasts and mitochondria. CLs are often tightly coupled to proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. The first step in understanding the interaction of CL with proteins is to obtain the pure CL structure, and the structure of mixtures of CL with other lipids. In this work we use a variety of techniques to characterize the fluid phase structure, material properties and thermodynamics of mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with tetramyristoylcardiolipin (TMCL), both with 14-carbon chains, at several mole percentages. X-ray diffuse scattering was used to determine structure, including bilayer thickness and area/lipid, the bending modulus, KC, and Sxray, a measure of chain orientational order. Our results reveal that TMCL thickens DMPC bilayers at all mole percentages, with a total increase of ∼6Å in pure TMCL, and increases AL from 64 Å(2) (DMPC at 35°C) to 109 Å(2) (TMCL at 50°C).KC increases by ∼50%, indicating that TMCL stiffens DMPC membranes. TMCL also orders DMPC chains by a factor of ∼2 for pure TMCL. Coarse grain molecular dynamics simulations confirm the experimental thickening of 2Å for 20 mol% TMCL and locate the TMCL headgroups near the glycerol-carbonyl region of DMPC; i.e., they are sequestered below the DMPC phosphocholine headgroup. Our results suggest that TMCL plays a role similar to cholesterol in that it thickens and stiffens DMPC membranes, orders chains, and is positioned under the umbrella of the PC headgroup. CL may be necessary for hydrophobic matching to inner mitochondrial membrane proteins. Differential scanning calorimetry, Sxray and CGMD simulations all suggest that TMCL does not form domains within the DMPC bilayers. We also determined the gel phase structure of TMCL, which surprisingly displays diffuse X-ray scattering, like a fluid phase lipid. AL=40.8 Å(2) for the ½TMCL gel phase, smaller than the DMPC gel phase with AL=47.2 Å(2), but similar to AL of DLPE=41 Å(2), consistent with untilted chains in gel phase TMCL.Chemistry and physics of lipids 12/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) plays a role in many cellular functions and signaling pathways both inside and outside of mitochondria. This review focuses on the role of CL in energy metabolism. Many reactions of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, the transport of metabolites required for these processes, and the stabilization of electron transport chain supercomplexes require CL. Recent studies indicate that CL is required for the synthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) co-factors, which are essential for numerous metabolic pathways. Activation of carnitine shuttle enzymes that are required for fatty acid metabolism is CL dependent. The presence of substantial amounts of CL in the peroxisomal membrane suggests that CL may be required for peroxisomal functions. Understanding the role of CL in energy metabolism may identify physiological modifiers that exacerbate the loss of CL and underlie the variation in symptoms observed in Barth syndrome, a genetic disorder of CL metabolism.Chemistry and physics of lipids 01/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Understanding biological processes at the mechanistic level requires a systematic charting of the physical and functional links between all cellular components. While protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid networks have been subject to many global surveys, other critical cellular components such as membrane lipids have rarely been studied in large-scale interaction screens. Here, we review the development of photoactivatable and clickable lipid analogues-so-called bifunctional lipids-as novel chemical tools that enable a global profiling of lipid-protein interactions in biological membranes. Recent studies indicate that bifunctional lipids hold great promise in systematic efforts to dissect the elaborate crosstalk between proteins and lipids in live cells and organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor