Genistein induces the p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4a tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by epigenetic mechanisms involving active chromatin modification
ABSTRACT Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) is the most abundant isoflavone found in the soybean. The effects of genistein on various cancer cell lines have been extensively studied but the precise molecular mechanisms are not known. We report here the epigenetic mechanism of the action of genistein on androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive (DuPro) human prostate cancer cell lines. Genistein induced the expression of tumor suppressor genes p21 (WAF1/CIP1/KIP1) and p16 (INK4a) with a concomitant decrease in cyclins. There was a G(0)-G(1) cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and a G(2)-M arrest in DuPro cells after genistein treatment. Genistein also induced apoptosis in DuPro cells. DNA methylation analysis revealed the absence of p21 promoter methylation in both cell lines. The effect of genistein on chromatin remodeling has not been previously reported. We found that genistein increased acetylated histones 3, 4, and H3/K4 at the p21 and p16 transcription start sites. Furthermore, we found that genistein treatment also increased the expression of histone acetyl transferases that function in transcriptional activation. This is the first report on epigenetic regulation of various genes by genistein through chromatin remodeling in prostate cancer. Altogether, our data provide new insights into the epigenetic mechanism of the action of genistein that may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of this dietary isoflavone and have important implications for epigenetic therapy.
- SourceAvailable from: Philippe T Georgel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a disease that is greatly affected by lifestyle, particularly diet, and is more prevalent in US and European countries compared with South and East Asia. Among several known causes and risk factors, nutrition plays an important role in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Various dietary components including polyphenols have been shown to possess anticancer properties. Dietary polyphenols have been the subject of extensive studies for the last decade because of their anticancer and chemopreventive potentials. Besides possessing various antitumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Various polyphenols have been shown to affect DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and microRNA expression patterns in prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the contribution of dietary polyphenols to various epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer. Since prostate cancer and diet are intimately associated, polyphenol-rich diets that epigenetically modify tumor biology have great significance in the prevention and management of prostate cancer.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 12/2013; 91(6):361-8. DOI:10.1139/bcb-2012-0044 · 2.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review focuses on how environmental factors through epigenetics modify disease risk and health outcomes. Major epigenetic events, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNA expression, are described. The function of dose, duration, composition, and window of exposure in remodeling the individual's epigenetic terrain and disease susceptibility are addressed. The ideas of lifelong editing of early-life epigenetic memories, transgenerational effects through germline transmission, and the potential role of hydroxylmethylation of cytosine in developmental reprogramming are discussed. Finally, the epigenetic effects of several major classes of environmental factors are reviewed in the context of pathogenesis of disease. These include endocrine disruptors, tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, infectious pathogens, particulate matter, diesel exhaust particles, dust mites, fungi, heavy metals, and other indoor and outdoor pollutants. We conclude that the summation of epigenetic modifications induced by multiple environmental exposures, accumulated over time, represented as broad or narrow, acute or chronic, developmental or lifelong, may provide a more precise assessment of risk and consequences. Future investigations may focus on their use as readouts or biomarkers of the totality of past exposure for the prediction of future disease risk and the prescription of effective countermeasures.ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 12/2012; 53(3-4):289-305. DOI:10.1093/ilar.53.3-4.289 · 1.05 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16(INK4a) and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2012; 263(1):122-30. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2012.06.013 · 3.63 Impact Factor