Impact of state and trait anxiety on the panic response to CCK-4.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany.
Journal of Neural Transmission (Impact Factor: 3.05). 07/2008; 115(6):917-20. DOI: 10.1007/s00702-008-0047-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In order to elucidate the impact of psychological factors on panic severity the correlation between baseline anxiety and panic response to cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4), an established model of human anxiety, was investigated in 33 healthy volunteers. Baseline anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI). Trait and state anxiety did not differ between panickers and nonpanickers nor were they correlated with panic severity. In conclusion, psychological factors are not major determinants for the subjective panic response to CCK-4 thus emphasising the importance of neurobiological factors.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we examined how personality disposition may affect the response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4; 50 microg) challenge in healthy volunteers (n=105). Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Statistical methods employed were correlation analysis and logistic regression. The results showed that the occurrence of CCK-4-induced panic attacks was best predicted by baseline diastolic blood pressure, preceding anxiety and SSP-defined traits of lack of assertiveness, detachment, embitterment and verbal aggression. Significant interactions were noted between the above mentioned variables, modifying their individual effects. For different subsets of CCK-4-induced symptoms, the traits of physical aggression, irritability, somatic anxiety and stress susceptibility also appeared related to panic manifestations. These findings suggest that some personality traits and their interactions may influence vulnerability to CCK-4-induced panic attacks in healthy volunteers.
    Psychiatry Research 07/2010; 178(2):342-7. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attacks are reportedly attenuated by effective treatment with antipanic antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, but in healthy volunteers such effects are not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 6-week treatment with an SSRI escitalopram on CCK-4-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers, who previously responded with a panic attack to CCK-4 challenge. A total of 18 healthy subjects (10 males and eight females, mean age 22.5±5.8) received a 6-week treatment with escitalopram (10mg/day) and placebo followed by CCK-4 challenge (50μg) in a double-blind crossover design. The panic rate was 67% after treatment with escitalopram and 56% after treatment with placebo (p=0.7). Thus, the results showed a significant reduction in CCK-4-induced panic rates without significant differences between escitalopram and placebo conditions. There were no significant effects of either treatment on any other variable of anxiety or cardiovascular indices. Secondary analysis showed no effect of gender or 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on response to CCK-4 challenge. This study demonstrated that in contrast to the findings in patients with panic disorder, in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers the treatment with an antipanic SSRI did not cause a reduction of CCK-4-induced panic attacks beyond the effect of placebo. The mechanisms behind this discrepancy and the reasons of the decrease in sensitivity to CCK-4 challenge on repeated administration remain to be clarified in future studies.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2012; · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that the anti-glycation enzyme glyoxalase-1 (GLO1) may play a role in anxiety-related behaviour. However, discordant findings between GLO1 expression and anxiety-related behaviour have been observed in animal models. Because no data are available on the relation between GLO1 mRNA expression and human anxiety so far, we investigated the expression of GLO1 mRNA in peripheral blood cells in relation to cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) induced panic anxiety in healthy subjects as an established model of human anxiety in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent challenge with CCK-4. GLO1 mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction prior to CCK-4 injection. Baseline anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI) and panic response was measured with the Panic Symptom Scale (PSS). CCK-4 elicited a marked anxiety response accompanied by a significant increase in heart rate. GLO1 mRNA expression did not correlate with state or trait anxiety nor with severity of CCK-4 induced anxiety. The lack of correlation between GLO1 mRNA expression and CCK-4 induced panic severity suggests that GLO1 is not involved into the acute panic response to CCK-4 in healthy volunteers. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the involvement of GLO1 in anxiety disorders at baseline and in anxiety challenge paradigms to resolve the apparent contradictions of preclinical studies concerning the relationship between GLO1 expression and anxiety.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 01/2011; 45(1):60-3. · 4.09 Impact Factor