The burden of hepatitis C virus infection is growing: a Canadian population-based study of hospitalizations from 1994 to 2004.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie (Impact Factor: 1.97). 05/2008; 22(4):381-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nearly 1% of Canadians are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Simulation analyses have suggested that HCV will place an increasing burden on the health care system as the infected population ages, but supportive clinical data are limited.
To study temporal trends in HCV-related hospitalizations and predictors of increased health care utilization from a Canadian population-based perspective.
An administrative hospitalization database from the Calgary Health Region was used to identify patients who were admitted for HCV between 1994 and 2004. The primary outcomes were liver-related HCV hospitalizations, length of stay, hospital costs and in-hospital mortality. Average annual growth rates in outcomes were calculated and subgroup analyses were conducted according to age, sex and HIV/HCV coinfection status.
Between 1994 and 2004, there were 4002 HCV-related hospitalizations; 22% were liver-related. Liver-related hospitalizations, lengths of stay and in-hospital mortality increased approximately fourfold or an average of 15% to 18% annually (P<0.0005). Patients aged 40 to 59 years and HIV/HCV coinfected patients experienced the largest average annual growth rates (19% to 27% and 30% to 40%, respectively; P<0.0005), reflecting the accelerated natural history of HCV in these subgroups. Hospital costs for liver-related HCV hospitalizations increased by an average of 41% annually (P=0.001) between 2000 and 2004. The average annual increase in liver-related hospitalizations remained significant in a sensitivity analysis, even when 75% of HCV cases were under-reported in 1994.
The present studies' findings confirm the growing burden of HCV on the Canadian health care system. Strategies to prevent HCV infection and maximize the dissemination and most effective use of potentially curative antiviral therapies are necessary to reduce these trends.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The comparative impact of chronic viral monoinfection versus coinfection on inpatient outcomes and health care utilization is relatively unknown. This study examined trends, inpatient utilization, and hospital outcomes for patients with HIV, HCV, or HIV/HCV coinfection. Methods: Data were from the 1996-2010 National Hospital Discharge Surveys. Hospitalizations with primary ICD-9-CM codes for HIV or HCV were included for HIV and HCV monoinfection, respectfully. Coinfection included both HIV and HCV codes. Demographic characteristics, select comorbidities, procedural interventions, average hospital length of stay (LOS), and discharge status were compared by infection status (HIV, HCV, HIV/HCV). Annual disease estimates and survey weights were used to generate hospitalization rates. Results: similar to 6.6 million hospitalizations occurred in patients with HIV (39%), HCV (56%), or HIV/ HCV (5%). The hospitalization rate (hospitalizations per 100 persons with infection) decreased in the HIV group (29.8 in 1996; 5.3 in 2010), decreased in the HIV/ HCV group (2.0 in 1996; 1.5 in 2010), yet increased in the HCV group (0.2 in 1996; 0.9 in 2010). Median LOS from 1996 to 2010 (days, interquartile range) decreased in all groups: HIV, 6 (3-10) to 4 (3-8); HCV, 5 (3-9) to 4 (2-6); HIV/ HCV, 6 (4-11) to 4 (2-7). Age-adjusted mortality rates decreased for all three groups. The rate of decline was least pronounced for those with HCV monoinfection. Conclusion: Hospitalizations have declined more rapidly for patients with HIV infection (including HIV/ HCV coinfection) than for patients with HCV infection. This growing disparity between HIV and HCV underscores the need to allocate more resources to HCV care in hopes that similar large-scale improvements can also be accomplished for patients with HCV.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 10/2014; 14(1):536. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-536 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Between 2001 and 2011, the standard of care for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a combination of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). In May 2011, boceprevir and telaprevir, two first-generation NS3⁄4A protease inhibitors, were approved in combination with PEG-IFN and RBV for 24 to 48 weeks in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infections. In December 2013, simeprevir, a second-generation NS3⁄4A protease inhibitor, was approved for use with PEG-IFN and RBV for 12 weeks in genotype 1, while sofosbuvir, a NS5B nucleotide polymerase inhibitor, was approved for use with PEG-IFN and RBV for 12 weeks in genotypes 1 and 4, as well as with RBV alone for 12 weeks in genotype 2 and for 24 weeks in genotype 3. Sofosbuvir combined with simeprevir or an NS5A replication complex inhibitor (ledipasvir or daclatasvir) with or without RBV for 12 weeks in genotype 1 resulted in a sustained virological response >90%, irrespective of previous treatment history or presence of cirrhosis. Similarly impressive sustained virological response rates have been shown with ABT-450⁄r (ritonavir-boosted NS3⁄4A protease inhibitor)-based regimens in combination with other direct-acting antiviral agent(s) with or without RBV for 12 weeks in genotype 1. The optimal all-oral interferon-free antiviral regimen likely entails a combination of an NS5B nucleotide polymerase inhibitor with either a second-generation NS3⁄4A protease inhibitor or an NS5A replication complex inhibitor with or without RBV. Further research is needed to determine the role of resistance testing, clarify the optimal follow-up duration post-treatment, and evaluate the antiviral efficacy and safety in difficult-to-cure patient populations.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Canadians is estimated at 0.3% to 0.9%. Of those with chronic HCV infection, 10% to 20% will experience advanced liver disease by 30 years of infection. Targeted screening seems a plausible strategy. We aimed to estimate the health and economic effects of various screening and treatment strategies for chronic HCV infection in Canada. We used a state-transition model to examine the cost-effectiveness of 4 screening strategies: no screening; screen and treat with pegylated interferon plus ribavarin; screen and treat with pegylated interferon and ribavarin- based direct-acting antiviral agents; and screen and treat with interferon-free direct-acting antivirals. We considered Canadian residents in 2 age groups: 25-64 and 45-64 years of age. We obtained model data from the literature. We predicted deaths related to chronic HCV infection, costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We found that screening and treating would prevent at least 9 HCV-related deaths per 10 000 persons screened over the lifetimeof the cohort. Screening was associated with QALY increases of 0.0032 to 0.0095 and cost increases of $124 to $338 per person, which translated to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $34 359 to $44 034 per QALY gained, relative to no screening, depending on age group screened and antiviral therapy received. A selective one-time HCV screening program for people 25-64 or 45-64 years of age in Canada would likely be cost-effective. Identification of silent cases of chronic HCV infection and the offer of treatment when appropriate could extend the lives of Canadians at reasonable cost. © 8872147 Canada Inc.
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 01/2015; 187(3). DOI:10.1503/cmaj.140711 · 5.81 Impact Factor


Available from
May 21, 2014