Lunatic fringe causes expansion and increased neurogenesis of trunk neural tube and neural crest populations.
ABSTRACT Both neurons and glia of the PNS are derived from the neural crest. In this study, we have examined the potential function of lunatic fringe in neural tube and trunk neural crest development by gain-of-function analysis during early stages of nervous system formation. Normally lunatic fringe is expressed in three broad bands within the neural tube, and is most prominent in the dorsal neural tube containing neural crest precursors. Using retrovirally-mediated gene transfer, we find that excess lunatic fringe in the neural tube increases the numbers of neural crest cells in the migratory stream via an apparent increase in cell proliferation. In addition, lunatic fringe augments the numbers of neurons and upregulates Delta-1 expression. The results indicate that, by modulating Notch/Delta signaling, lunatic fringe not only increases cell division of neural crest precursors, but also increases the numbers of neurons in the trunk neural crest.
Article: rax, Hes1, and notch1 promote the formation of Müller glia by postnatal retinal progenitor cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We are interested in the mechanisms of glial cell development in the vertebrate central nervous system. We have identified genes that can direct the formation of glia in the retina. rax, a homeobox gene, Hes1, a basic helix-loop-helix gene, and notch1, a transmembrane receptor gene, are expressed in retinal progenitor cells, downregulated in differentiated neurons, and expressed in Müller glia. Retroviral transduction of any of these genes resulted in expression of glial markers. In contrast, misexpression of a dominant-negative Hes1 gene reduced the number of glia. Cotransfection of rax with reporter constructs containing the Hes1 or notch1 regulatory regions led to the upregulation of reporter transcription. These data suggest a regulatory heirarchy that controls the formation of glia at the expense of neurons.Neuron 06/2000; 26(2):383-94. · 14.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To what extent are the pathways that regulate self-renewal conserved between stem cells at different stages of development and in different tissues? Some pathways play a strikingly conserved role in regulating the self-renewal of diverse stem cells, whereas other pathways are specific to stem cells in certain tissues or at certain stages of development. Recent studies have highlighted differences between the self-renewal of embryonic, fetal and adult stem cells. By understanding these similarities and differences we may come to a molecular understanding of how stem cells replicate themselves and why aspects of this process differ between stem cells.Current Opinion in Cell Biology 01/2005; 16(6):700-7. · 12.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stem cells in the basal layer of human interfollicular epidermis form clusters that can be reconstituted in vitro. In order to supply the interfollicular epidermis with differentiated cells, the size of these clusters must be controlled. Evidence suggests that control is regulated via differentiation of stem cells on the periphery of the clusters. Moreover, there is growing evidence that this regulation is mediated by the Notch signalling pathway. In this paper, we develop theoretical arguments, in conjunction with computer simulations of a model of the basal layer, to show that regulation of differentiation is the most likely mechanism for cluster control. In addition, we show that stem cells must adhere more strongly to each other than they do to differentiated cells. Developing our model further we show that lateral-induction, mediated by the Notch signalling pathway, is a natural mechanism for cluster control. It can not only indicate to cells the size of the cluster they are in and their position within it, but it can also control the cluster size. This can only be achieved by postulating a secondary, cluster wide, differentiation signal, and cells with high Delta expression being deaf to this signal.Developmental Biology 07/2003; 258(1):141-53. · 4.07 Impact Factor