Waist circumference and mortality.

Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 06/2008; 167(12):1465-75. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwn079
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors examined the association between waist circumference and mortality among 154,776 men and 90,757 women aged 51-72 years at baseline (1996-1997) in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Additionally, the combined effects of waist circumference and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) were examined. All-cause mortality was assessed over 9 years of follow-up (1996-2005). After adjustment for BMI and other covariates, a large waist circumference (fifth quintile vs. second) was associated with an approximately 25% increased mortality risk (men: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 1.29; women: HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.41). The waist circumference-mortality association was found in persons with and without prevalent disease, in smokers and nonsmokers, and across different racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians). Compared with subjects with a combination of normal BMI (18.5-<25) and normal waist circumference, those in the normal-BMI group with a large waist circumference (men: > or =102 cm; women: > or =88 cm) had an approximately 20% higher mortality risk (men: HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.39; women: HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.36). The finding that persons with a normal BMI but a large waist circumference had a higher mortality risk in this study suggests that increased waist circumference should be considered a risk factor for mortality, in addition to BMI.

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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in relation to various anthropometric measures of obesity is still controversial. Methods and results Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and waist-to-hip-to-height ratio (WHHR) were measured at baseline in a cohort of 46 651 European men and women aged 24-99 years. The relationship between anthropometric measures of obesity and mortality was evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model with age as a time-scale and with threshold detected by a piecewise regression model. Over a median follow-up of 7.9 years, 2381 men and 1055 women died, 1071 men (45.0%) and 339 women (32.1%) from cardiovascular disease (CVD). BMI had a J-shaped relationship with CVD mortality, whereas anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity had positive linear relationships. BMI, WC and WHtR showed J-shaped associations with all-cause mortality, whereas WHR, ABSI and WHHR demonstrated positive linear relationships. Accordingly, a threshold value was detected at 29.29 and 30.98 kg/m2 for BMI, 96.4 and 93.3 cm for WC, 0.57 and 0.60 for WHtR, 0.0848 and 0.0813 m11/6 kg-2/3 for ABSI with CVD mortality in men and women, respectively; 29.88 and 29.50 kg/m2 for BMI, 104.3 and 105.6 for WC, 0.61 and 0.67 for WHtR, 0.95 and 0.86 for WHR, 0.0807 and 0.0765 for ABSI in men and women, respectively, and 0.52 for WHHR in women with all-cause mortality. Conclusion All anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity had positive linear associations with CVD mortality, whereas some showed linear and the others J-shaped relationships with all-cause mortality. BMI had a J-shaped relationship with either CVD or all-cause mortality. Thresholds detected based on mortality may help with clinical definition of obesity in relation to mortality.
    Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.09.004 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating adipokines are associated with physiological and pathophysiological processes in both obesity and pregnancy. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of pregnancy complications and the majority of research uses body mass index (BMI) to assess fatness. Specific fat compartments are associated with obesity-induced health risks yet it is not known how abdominal fat mass in pregnancy is related to circulating adipokines. Plasma leptin, resistin, visfatin, and adiponectin were measured by immunoassay in healthy pregnant women of normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9; n = 17) and overweight/obese pregnant women (BMI 25.0–40.0, n = 21) in the third trimester. Total body fat and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were measured at 1–3 weeks postpartum. Overweight/obese women had greater total body fat (t = −6.210, P < 0.001) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (t = –5.072, P < 0.001) than normal-weight women while there was no difference in abdominal visceral fat. Overweight/obese women had higher leptin (66.3 ± 34.2 vs. 35.7 ± 19.3 ng/mL, P < 0.001) compared with normal-weight women. Leptin was associated with total body fat (r = 0.782, P < 0.001) and resistin was associated with abdominal visceral fat (r = 0.452, P = 0.045). No significant correlations were observed between adiponectin or visfatin and any measure of body composition. In pregnant women, resistin has the potential to be a circulating biomarker for visceral fat, an ectopic fat compartment. These observational data may provide insight for the pathophysiological roles of adipokines and the impact of visceral fat in pregnant women.
    10/2014; DOI:10.4161/adip.29805
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Estimation of relative contribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on health outcomes requires a regression model that includes both obesity metrics. But, multicollinearity could yield biased estimates. METHODS: To address the multicollinearity issue between BMI and WC, we used the residual model approach. The standard WC (Y-axis) was regressed on the BMI (X-axis) to obtain residual WC. Data from two adult population surveys (Nunavik Inuit and James Bay Cree) were analysed to evaluate relative effect of BMI and WC on four cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein levels. RESULTS: In multivariate models, standard WC and BMI were significantly associated with cardiometabolic outcomes. Residual WC was not linked with any outcomes. The BMI effect was weakened by including standard WC in the model, but its effect remained unchanged if residual WC was considered. CONCLUSIONS: The strong correlation between standard WC and BMI does not allow assessment of their relative contributions to health in the same model without a risk of making erroneous estimations. By contrast with BMI, fat distribution (residual WC) does not add valuable information to a model that already contains overall adiposity (BMI) in Inuit and Cree.
    Journal of Epidemiology &amp Community Health 06/2014; 68(9):849–855. DOI:10.1136/jech-2014-204005 · 3.29 Impact Factor

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