Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 and characteristics associated with undiagnosed infection: New York City, 2004.
ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with substantial morbidity and increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. We describe HSV-2 seroprevalence in adult New Yorkers, and examine the relationship between select characteristics, infection, and diagnosis.
HSV-2 seroprevalence and risk factors were measured using the 2004 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults. HSV-2 seroprevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed for select characteristics. Associations between proposed risk factors and HSV-2 infection and diagnosis were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios.
Nearly 28% of adults were infected with HSV-2; 88.4% of HSV-2 positive persons were undiagnosed. Black women had the highest seroprevalence (59.7%) of any sex or race/ethnicity group. Women, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics (vs. non-Hispanic whites), and men who have sex with men were at greater odds of HSV-2 infection. Among HSV-2 infected individuals, non-Hispanic blacks (vs. non-Hispanic whites), uncircumcised men, and those with no routine place of care were less likely to be diagnosed.
HSV-2 is highly prevalent and largely undiagnosed in New York City; seroprevalence varies by subgroup. Targeted HSV-2 screening, counseling and treatment may help reduce transmission of HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus.
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ABSTRACT: There are no known racial differences in genital herpes disease pathogenesis or response to therapy. Despite high herpes simplex virus (HSV) seroprevalence in Black persons, clinical trials investigating the treatment of recurrent genital herpes (RGH) have typically enrolled a small proportion of Black patients. This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of patient-initiated, 1-day famciclovir 1000 mg twice-daily in immunocompetent Black adults (USA and South Africa) with RGH. Eligible patients were randomized (2:1) to famciclovir or placebo. The primary endpoint was time to healing of non-aborted genital herpes lesions (i.e., lesions that progressed beyond papule stage). Secondary endpoints included proportion of patients with aborted genital herpes lesions, time to resolution of associated symptoms, and safety. www.ClinicalTrials.gov ; trial identifier NCT00477334. A total of 299 patients with RGH (66% female, median age = 37 years) received either 1-day famciclovir 1000 mg twice-daily (n = 201) or placebo (n = 98). In the modified intent-to-treat population, the estimated median time to healing of non-aborted genital herpes lesions was 5.38 days for famciclovir and 4.79 days for placebo (median of treatment differences = 0.26 days; 95% CI [-0.40, 0.98]; p = 0.416). Consistent findings were reported in the completer and per-protocol populations. No significant differences were reported for all secondary analyses. Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with the established safety profile of famciclovir: 18 (6%) patients had drug-related AEs (16 [8%] famciclovir; 2 [2%] placebo), none of which were serious or led to discontinuation or dose adjustment/interruption. There are some limitations of this research: many study sites either lacked prior experience in conducting clinical studies in patients with HSV infection or enrolled small numbers of patients, which may have compromised efficacy outcomes. Also, HIV antibody testing was not mandated at enrollment. This study showed similar efficacy and tolerability of 1-day treatment with famciclovir 1000 mg twice-daily compared to placebo in immunocompetent Black adults with RGH. Famciclovir has proven efficacy and safety in the overall RGH population. Further understanding of the efficacy of antiherpes therapy in Black patients with recurrent genital herpes may be warranted.Current Medical Research and Opinion 03/2010; 26(3):653-61. DOI:10.1185/03007990903554471 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are key public health problems that pose an enormous risk for disease transmission in the general population. This study estimated, for the first time, prevalence estimates of serologic markers of HCV, HBV, HAV, HIV and HSV-2 in the adult population of Puerto Rico and assessed variations across sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. A seroepidemiologic survey was employed using a stratified cluster probability sample of households in Puerto Rico. Participants completed a face-to-face interview, a self-administered questionnaire using an ACASI system, and provided blood specimens for antibody testing. Prevalence estimates of viral hepatitis, HIV and HSV-2 were estimated using a logistic regression model weighting for the probability of participation in each household block and the inverse of the probability of selection according to geographic strata, households' blocks, and sex distribution. A total of 1,654 adults participated in the study. Seroprevalence estimates for HCV (2.3%, 95% CI: 1.3%-4.2%), HBV (3.1%, 95% CI: 2.0%-4.7%), and HSV-2 (22.3%, 95% CI: 18.5%-26.7%) in Puerto Rico are roughly in agreement with estimates obtained in the US population; however, HAV (41.3%, 95% CI: 36.9%-45.8%) and HIV (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.5%-2.3%) seroprevalence estimates in Puerto Rico were higher. The proportion of individuals that were unaware of their serostatus was as follows: 80% for HCV, 98.3% for HBV, 96.4% for HAV, 36.4% for HIV, and 97.8% for HSV-2. Post-stratification estimates of seroprevalence varied significantly by demographic and risk related characteristics. This data underscore the disproportionate impact of some viral infections across selected population subgroups in Puerto Rico. A concerted island-wide effort is needed to strengthen viral hepatitis and STIs prevention and control strategies, support surveillance to monitor chronic infections, and ensure appropriate counseling, testing, and medical management of infected persons. Integration of HCV, HBV, and HSV-2 counseling into HIV existing prevention services and outreach through social networks might represent a valuable approach to reach high-risk individuals.BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2010; 10:76. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-76 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe demographic and behavioral characteristics and the prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections in men who had sex with men identified through a nationally representative, population-based survey. As part of National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 2001-2006, men 18 to 59 years of age were interviewed about sexual behavior using audio computer assisted self-interview and were tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. Of the 4319 men interviewed, 5.2% reported having ever had sex with men (MSM). MSM were more likely than non-MSM (those reporting female partners only) to have first sex at <15 years (31.9% vs. 17.3%), have > or =10 lifetime sex partners (73.6% vs. 40.8%), and have ever used cocaine (46.1% vs. 26.6%) (all P < 0.004). Among MSM, the prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 was 9.1% and 18.4%, respectively. Only 44.5% of MSM reported their sexual orientation as homosexual or gay. Comparing with bisexual and heterosexual MSM, homosexual MSM reported the highest number of lifetime male partners and had the highest HIV prevalence (16.5%). In this population-based sample of men in the United States, self-reported same-sex behavior and homosexual orientation are strong markers for high risk of HIV infection.Sexually transmitted diseases 06/2010; 37(6):399-405. DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181ce122b · 2.75 Impact Factor