We report the first confirmed case of eczema vaccinatum in the United States related to smallpox vaccination since routine vaccination was discontinued in 1972. A 28-month-old child with refractory atopic dermatitis developed eczema vaccinatum after exposure to his father, a member of the US military who had recently received smallpox vaccine. The father had a history of inactive eczema but reportedly reacted normally to the vaccine. The child's mother also developed contact vaccinia infection.
Treatment of the child included vaccinia immune globulin administered intravenously, used for the first time in a pediatric patient; cidofovir, never previously used for human vaccinia infection; and ST-246, an investigational agent being studied for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infection. Serological response to vaccinia virus and viral DNA levels, correlated with clinical events, were utilized to monitor the course of disease and to guide therapy. Burn patient-type management was required, including skin grafts.
The child was discharged from the hospital after 48 days and has recovered with no apparent systemic sequelae or significant scarring.
This case illustrates the need for careful screening prior to administration of smallpox vaccine and awareness by clinicians of the ongoing vaccination program and the potential risk for severe adverse events related to vaccinia virus.
"ST-246 protects ground squirrels against monkeypox challenge when administered up to 3 days post-exposure . Treatment with VIGIV (Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous) and cidofovir along with ST-246 (multiple doses) was successful in the treatment of a 28-month-old child with severe eczema vaccinatum . Similarly, a combination therapy using VIGIV, ST-246, Imiquimod and CMX001, a lipid conjugate of cidofovir, were used to treat progressive vaccinia in a military vaccinee . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-exposure vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV) has been suggested to be effective in minimizing death if administered within four days of smallpox exposure. While there is anecdotal evidence for efficacy of post-exposure vaccination this has not been definitively studied in humans. In this study, we analyzed post-exposure prophylaxis using several attenuated recombinant VACV in a mouse model. A recombinant VACV expressing murine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was most effective for post-exposure protection of mice infected with VACV and ectromelia virus (ECTV). Untreated animals infected with VACV exhibited severe weight loss and morbidity leading to 100% mortality by 8 to 10 days post-infection. Animals treated one day post-infection had milder symptoms, decreased weight loss and morbidity, and 100% survival. Treatment on days 2 or 3 post-infection resulted in 40% and 20% survival, respectively. Similar results were seen in ECTV-infected mice. Despite the differences in survival rates in the VACV model, the viral load was similar in both treated and untreated mice while treated mice displayed a high level of IFN-γ in the serum. These results suggest that protection provided by IFN-γ expressed by VACV may be mediated by its immunoregulatory activities rather than its antiviral effects. These results highlight the importance of IFN-γ as a modulator of the immune response for post-exposure prophylaxis and could be used potentially as another post-exposure prophylaxis tool to prevent morbidity following infection with smallpox and other orthopoxviruses.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77879. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077879 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"These complications may be severe and life-threatening. Severe adverse events following vaccination may include eczema vaccinatum (EV) in patients with atopic dermatitis and certain other skin conditions, and progressive vaccinia (PV) in immunocompromised patients
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A33 is a type II integral membrane protein expressed on the extracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus (VACV). Passive transfer of A33-directed monoclonal antibodies or vaccination with an A33 subunit vaccine confers protection against lethal poxvirus challenge in animal models. Homologs of A33 are highly conserved among members of the Orthopoxvirus genus and are potential candidates for inclusion in vaccines or assays targeting extracellular enveloped virus activity. One monoclonal antibody directed against VACV A33, MAb-1G10, has been shown to target a conformation-dependent epitope. Interestingly, while it recognizes VACV A33 as well as the corresponding variola homolog, it does not bind to the monkeypox homolog. In this study, we utilized a random phage display library to investigate the epitope recognized by MAb-1G10 that is critical for facilitating cell-to-cell spread of the vaccinia virus.
By screening with linear or conformational random phage libraries, we found that phages binding to MAb-1G10 display the consensus motif CEPLC, with a disulfide bond formed between two cysteine residues required for MAb-1G10 binding. Although the phage motif contained no linear sequences homologous to VACV A33, structure modeling and analysis suggested that residue D115 is important to form the minimal epitope core. A panel of point mutants expressing the ectodomain of A33 protein was generated and analyzed by either binding assays such as ELISA and immunoprecipitation or a functional assessment by blocking MAb-1G10 mediated comet inhibition in cell culture.
These results confirm L118 as a component of the MAb-1G10 binding epitope, and further identify D115 as an essential residue. By defining the minimum conformational structure, as well as the conformational arrangement of a short peptide sequence recognized by MAb-1G10, these results introduce the possibility of designing small molecule mimetics that may interfere with the function of A33 in vivo. This information will also be useful for designing improved assays to evaluate the potency of monoclonal and polyclonal products that target A33 or A33-modulated EV dissemination.
"have been shown to be efficacious against orthopoxviruses both in animal models and clinically (Altmann et al., 2011; De Clercq, 2002; Vora et al., 2008), thus illustrating the utility of this strategy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitoxantrone, an FDA-approved therapeutic for the treatment of cancer and multiple sclerosis, was previously reported to exhibit antiviral activity against vaccinia virus. To determine whether this activity extends to other orthopoxviruses, mitoxantrone was tested against cowpox and monkeypox. Mitoxantrone demonstrated an EC(50) of 0.25 μM against cowpox and 0.8 μM against monkeypox. Intraperitoneal treatment of cowpox virus-challenged C57Bl/6 mice with 0.5 mg/kg mitoxantrone resulted in 25% survival and a significant increase in survival time. In an effort to improve its efficacy, mitoxantrone was tested for synergistic activity with cidofovir. In vitro tests demonstrated significant synergy between the two drugs against cowpox; however, no synergistic effect on animal survival or median time-to-death was seen in intranasally-infected BALB/c mice. Significantly fewer animals survived when treated with a combination of 0.5 mg/kg mitoxantrone and 100 mg/kg cidofovir than with 100 mg/kg cidofovir alone. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of limited anti-orthopoxvirus activity by mitoxantrone in an animal model.
Antiviral research 12/2011; 93(2):305-8. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.12.001 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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