Article

Varicella-zoster virus-specific immune responses in elderly recipients of a herpes zoster vaccine.

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 03/2008; 197(6):825-35. DOI: 10.1086/528696
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involved 38,546 subjects > or =60 years old demonstrated efficacy of a high-potency live-attenuated Oka/Merck varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine. The trial included an immunology substudy to determine the relationship of VZV-specific immune responses to vaccination and clinical outcome.
The immunology substudy enrolled 1395 subjects at 2 sites where blood samples obtained prior to vaccination, at 6 weeks after vaccination, and at 1, 2, and 3 years thereafter were tested for VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI) by gamma-interferon ELISPOT and responder cell frequency assays and for VZV antibody by glycoprotein ELISA.
VZV-CMI and VZV antibodies were significantly increased in vaccine recipients at 6 weeks after vaccination. The vaccine-induced increases in VZV-CMI persisted during the 3 years of follow-up, although their magnitude decreased over time. The magnitude of these VZV-specific immune responses was greater in subjects 60-69 years old than in subjects > or =70 years old.
The zoster vaccine induced a significant increase in VZV-CMI and VZV antibody. The magnitude and duration of the boost in VZV-CMI in vaccine recipients and the relationship of this boost to age paralleled the clinical effects of the vaccine observed during the efficacy trial. These findings support the hypothesis that boosting VZV-CMI protects older adults against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Michael R Irwin, Aug 25, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
164 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zostavax® is a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine developed specifically for the prevention of HZ and PHN in individuals aged ≥50 years. During the clinical development of Zostavax, which was mainly in the US, the vaccine was administrated by the subcutaneous (SC) route. In Europe, many healthcare professionals prefer administering vaccines by the intramuscular (IM) route. This was an open-label, randomised trial conducted in 354 subjects aged ≥50 years. The primary objectives were to demonstrate that IM administration is both non-inferior to SC administration in terms of 4-week post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs), and elicits an acceptable geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of antibody titres measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pre-specified non-inferiority was set as the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the GMT ratio (IM/SC) being >0.67. An acceptable GMFR for the IM route was pre-specified as the lower bound of its 95% CI being >1.4. Description of the VZV immune response using the interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT) assay and of the safety were secondary objectives.
    Vaccine 12/2014; 4(6). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.024 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia increase with age, associated with age-related decrease in immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). One dose of zoster vaccine (ZV) has demonstrated substantial protection against HZ; this study examined impact of a second dose of ZV. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study with 210 subjects ≥60 years old compared immunity and safety profiles after one and two doses of ZV, separated by 6 weeks, vs. placebo. Immunogenicity was evaluated using VZV interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay and VZV glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent antibody (gpELISA) assay. Adverse experiences (AEs) were recorded on a standardized Vaccination Report Card. No serious vaccine-related AEs occurred. VZV IFN-γ ELISPOT geometric mean count (GMC) of spot-forming cells per 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells increased in the ZV group from 16.9 prevaccination to 49.5 and 32.8 at 2 and 6 weeks postdose 1, respectively. Two weeks, 6 weeks and 6 months postdose 2, GMC was 44.3, 42.9, and 36.5, respectively. GMC in the placebo group did not change during the study. The peak ELISPOT response occurred ∼2 weeks after each ZV dose. The gpELISA geometric mean titers (GMTs) in the ZV group were higher than in the placebo group at 6 weeks after each dose. Correlation between the IFN-γ ELISPOT and gpELISA assays was poor. ZV was generally well-tolerated and immunogenic in adults ≥60 years old. A second dose of ZV was generally safe, but did not boost VZV-specific immunity beyond levels achieved postdose 1.
    Vaccine 12/2011; 30(5):904-10. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.096 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder has been associated with activation of inflammatory processes as well as with reductions in innate, adaptive and non-specific immune responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between major depression and a disease-relevant immunologic response, namely varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific immunity, in elderly adults. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in 104 elderly community dwelling adults ≥ 60years of age who were enrolled in the depression substudy of the shingles prevention study, a double blind, placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy trial. Fifty-two subjects had a current major depressive disorder, and 52 age- and sex-matched controls had no history of depression or any mental illness. VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI) was measured by VZV responder cell frequency (VZV-RCF) and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays, and antibody to VZV was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against affinity-purified VZV glycoproteins (gpELISA). VZV-CMI, measured by VZV-RCF, was significantly lower in the depressed group than in the controls (p<0.001), and VZV-RCF was inversely correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms in the depressed patients. In addition, an age-related reduction in VZV-RCF was observed in the depressed patients, but not in the controls. Furthermore, there was a trend for depressive symptom severity to be associated with lower ELISPOT counts. Finally, VZV-RCF was higher in depressed patients treated with antidepressant medications as compared to untreated depressed patients. Since lower levels of VZV-RCF appear to explain the increased risk and severity of herpes zoster observed in older adults, these findings suggest that, in addition to increasing age, depression may increase the risk and severity of herpes zoster.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 02/2011; 25(4):759-66. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2011.02.001 · 6.13 Impact Factor