Targeted ablation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-producing cells in transgenic mice reduces obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet.
ABSTRACT The K cell is a specific sub-type of enteroendocrine cell located in the proximal small intestine that produces glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), xenin, and potentially other unknown hormones. Because GIP promotes weight gain and insulin resistance, reducing hormone release from K cells could lead to weight loss and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the consequences of coordinately reducing circulating levels of all K cell-derived hormones are unknown. To reduce the number of functioning K cells, regulatory elements from the rat GIP promoter/gene were used to express an attenuated diphtheria toxin A chain in transgenic mice. K cell number, GIP transcripts, and plasma GIP levels were profoundly reduced in the GIP/DT transgenic mice. Other enteroendocrine cell types were not ablated. Food intake, body weight, and blood glucose levels in response to insulin or intraperitoneal glucose were similar in control and GIP/DT mice fed standard chow. In contrast to single or double incretin receptor knock-out mice, the incretin response was absent in GIP/DT animals suggesting K cells produce GIP plus an additional incretin hormone. Following high fat feeding for 21-35 weeks, the incretin response was partially restored in GIP/DT mice. Transgenic versus wild-type mice demonstrated significantly reduced body weight (25%), plasma leptin levels (77%), and daily food intake (16%) plus enhanced energy expenditure (10%) and insulin sensitivity. Regardless of diet, long term glucose homeostasis was not grossly perturbed in the transgenic animals. In conclusion, studies using GIP/DT mice demonstrate an important role for K cells in the regulation of body weight and insulin sensitivity.
Article: Xenin plasma concentrations during modified sham feeding and during meals of different composition demonstrated by radioimmunoassay and chromatography.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Xenin is a 25 amino acid peptide produced by specific endocrine cells of the duodenal mucosa. Xenin has multiple biological actions in the gastrointestinal tract. It modulates intestinal motility, affects exocrine pancreatic secretion, and gastric secretion of acid. In the present investigation, we studied plasma concentration of xenin in volunteers after modified sham feeding and after meals of different composition. Plasma xenin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay in unextracted plasmas and after acidic extraction using C-18 Sep-Pak chromatography and after neutral extraction using affinity filtration. Both extraction methods were followed by C 18 r.p. HPLC chromatography. Xenin plasma concentrations in unextracted and in extracted plasma rose significantly after modified sham feeding when the food was brought to the volunteers from another room immediately before sham feeding started. When the volunteers had the opportunity to observe the preparation of the meal, xenin plasma concentrations during fasting were high and no further rise was observed after sham feeding. Isocaloric feeding resulted in elevated xenin concentrations in unextracted plasma and after high-pressure liquid chromatography. The methods of extraction, acidic or neutral, did not affect the results. CONCLUSION: Cephalic factors, investigated by modified sham feeding, stimulate release of xenin into the circulation. Xenin may participate in the central nervous regulation of gastrointestinal function.Regulatory Peptides 04/2003; 111(1-3):153-9. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract has a crucial role in the control of energy homeostasis through its role in the digestion, absorption, and assimilation of ingested nutrients. Furthermore, signals from the gastrointestinal tract are important regulators of gut motility and satiety, both of which have implications for the long-term control of body weight. Among the specialized cell types in the gastrointestinal mucosa, enteroendocrine cells have important roles in regulating energy intake and glucose homeostasis through their actions on peripheral target organs, including the endocrine pancreas. This article reviews the biological actions of gut hormones regulating glucose homeostasis, with an emphasis on mechanisms of action and the emerging therapeutic roles of gut hormones for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2007; 117(1):24-32. · 15.39 Impact Factor
Article: Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: : Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was recently identified in the rat stomach. We examined the effects of the gastric peptide ghrelin on energy balance in association with leptin and vagal nerve activity. : Food intake, oxygen consumption, gastric emptying, and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) messenger RNA expression were measured after intra-third cerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of ghrelin in mice. The gastric vagal nerve activity was recorded after intravenous administration in rats. Gastric ghrelin gene expression was assessed by Northern blot analysis. Repeated coadministration of ghrelin and interleukin (IL)-1 beta was continued for 5 days. : Ghrelin exhibited gastroprokinetic activity with structural resemblance to motilin and potent orexigenic activity through action on the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y(1) receptor, which was lost after vagotomy. Ghrelin decreased gastric vagal afferent discharge in contrast to other anorexigenic peptides that increased the activity. Ghrelin gene expression in the stomach was increased by fasting and in ob/ob mice, and was decreased by administration of leptin and IL-1 beta. Peripherally administered ghrelin blocked IL-1 beta-induced anorexia and produced positive energy balance by promoting food intake and decreasing energy expenditure. : Ghrelin, which is negatively regulated by leptin and IL-1 beta, is secreted by the stomach and increases arcuate NPY expression, which in turn acts through Y(1) receptors to increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Gastric peptide ghrelin may thus function as part of the orexigenic pathway downstream from leptin and is a potential therapeutic target not only for obesity but also for anorexia and cachexia.Gastroenterology 02/2001; 120(2):337-45. · 11.68 Impact Factor