Achieving a Healthy Weight Gain During Pregnancy

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.
Annual Review of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 8.36). 03/2008; 28(1):411-23. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155322
Source: PubMed


This review uses the 1990 U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain recommendations to examine the question, what is a healthy pregnancy weight gain? The relationship of gestational weight gain to infant size at birth; pregnancy, labor, and delivery complications; neonatal, infant, and child outcomes; and maternal weight and health outcomes in U.S. and European populations are discussed. Pregnancy weight gains within the IOM recommendations are associated with better outcomes. The possible exception is very obese women, who may benefit from weight gains less than the 7 kg (15 pounds) recommended. Only about 33% to 40% of U.S. women gain within IOM recommendations. Excessive gestational weight gain is more prevalent than inadequate gain. Women's gestational weight gains tend to follow the recommendations of health care providers. Current interventions demonstrate efficacy in influencing gestational weight gain in low-income women with normal and overweight body mass index in the United States and obese women in Scandinavia.

1 Follower
18 Reads
  • Source
    • "Weight gain, physical activity (PA), and dietary intake all directly influence pregnancy outcomes and the long-term health of mother and child. Only one-third of women meet the Institute of Medicine (IOM) weight gain guidelines during pregnancy, with up to 50 % gaining excessive weight (Institute of Medicine, 2007; Olson, 2008; Simas et al., 2011). Pregnancy weight gain above recommendations is associated with many adverse health outcomes, including an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, macrosomia, and new or persistent overweight or obesity in the mother (Guelinckx et al., 2008; Hernandez, 2012; Nehring et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10865-015-9672-z · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In recent years, this health issue has attracted an increasing number of researchers due to the potential impact of GWG on offspring's body weight in childhood [16] [17] [18]. Therefore, the objective of this review was to systematically summarize current knowledge regarding the association between GWG and offspring body weight in children aged 2 to 18.9 years from observational studies. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring's body weight. Methods: Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n = 23) were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results: Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions: These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child's lifestyle factors).
    Journal of obesity 10/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/524939
  • Source
    • "Childbearing is a commonly cited cause of weight gain for women, and studies have shown 45% of normal, 40% to 50% of overweight, and 60% of obese women retain weight at 6 months postpartum.1 Studies of women 10 years and 15 years after their last childbirth show that compared to women who lost all pregnancy weight by 6 months postpartum, women who retained any weight at 6 months postpartum had increased odds of experiencing midlife obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes.2,3 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Health coaching is an emerging behavioral intervention to improve outcomes in chronic disease management and prevention; however, no studies have investigated its utility in postpartum women who have gained excess weight during pregnancy. A 32-year-old primigravida woman who was overweight at conception and gained 23 lbs more than Institute of Medicine recommendations for her pre-pregnancy body mass index participated in a 6-month personalized health planning with integrative health coaching (PHPIHC) intervention. The intervention included a baseline health risk assessment review with a healthcare provider and eight biweekly, 30-minute telephonic health coaching sessions. The participant demonstrated improvement in physical activity, energy expenditure, knowledge, and confidence to engage in healthpromoting behaviors. Although the participant did not reach the target weight by completion of the health coaching sessions, follow up 8 months later indicated she achieved the target goal (within 5% of prepregnancy weight). This case report suggests that PHP-IHC can support postpartum women in returning to pre-pregnancy weight after gaining excess gestational weight. Future research and clinical trials are needed to determine the best timing, length, and medium (online, in-person, telephonic) of PHP-IHC for postpartum women.
    07/2013; 2(4):72-77. DOI:10.7453/gahmj.2013.033
Show more


18 Reads
Available from