Article

Achieving a healthy weight gain during pregnancy.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.
Annual Review of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 10.46). 03/2008; 28:411-23. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155322
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review uses the 1990 U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain recommendations to examine the question, what is a healthy pregnancy weight gain? The relationship of gestational weight gain to infant size at birth; pregnancy, labor, and delivery complications; neonatal, infant, and child outcomes; and maternal weight and health outcomes in U.S. and European populations are discussed. Pregnancy weight gains within the IOM recommendations are associated with better outcomes. The possible exception is very obese women, who may benefit from weight gains less than the 7 kg (15 pounds) recommended. Only about 33% to 40% of U.S. women gain within IOM recommendations. Excessive gestational weight gain is more prevalent than inadequate gain. Women's gestational weight gains tend to follow the recommendations of health care providers. Current interventions demonstrate efficacy in influencing gestational weight gain in low-income women with normal and overweight body mass index in the United States and obese women in Scandinavia.

1 Bookmark
 · 
150 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: 1) evaluate the proportion who correctly classify- or misclassify maternal weight gain; 2) investigate weight gain attitudes, and 3) compare weight gain attitudes with weight gain recommendations by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), as well as background and lifestyle factors. Methods: This is secondary analysis of cohort data collected as part of a prospective study of determinants of macrosomic infants in Norway (the STORKproject). The participants (n=467) answered a self-administered questionnaire, including report on maternal weight gain and attitudes towards weight gain, in mean gestation week 36.4 (SD=1.7). The women were also weighted (kg) at the hospital using a digital beam scale. Results: A significant discrepancy was found between self-reported and measured maternal weight gain. About 76% reported to be satisfied with maternal weight gain while 24% were dissatisfied. Women reporting to be dissatisfied were significantly more likely to be sedentary, sick-listed, reporting poor eating habits and to be multiparous. Conclusions: Most women reported to be satisfied with their maternal weight gain, but had gained excessively according to recommended weight gain ranges issued by IOM. Pregnant women may need targeted advice on their specific weight gain and impact of increased weight gain on health variables for mother and child.
    Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 09/2014; · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring's body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n = 23) were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child's lifestyle factors).
    Journal of obesity 10/2014; 2014.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on clinical outcomes. The effect of interventions on varied groups of women based on body mass index, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and underlying medical conditions is not clear. Our individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised trials will assess the differential effect of diet- and physical activity-based interventions on maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in clinically relevant subgroups of women.Methods/design: Randomised trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy will be identified by searching the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, LILACS, Pascal, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database. Primary researchers of the identified trials are invited to join the International Weight Management in Pregnancy Collaborative Network and share their individual patient data. We will reanalyse each study separately and confirm the findings with the original authors. Then, for each intervention type and outcome, we will perform as appropriate either a one-step or a two-step IPD meta-analysis to obtain summary estimates of effects and 95% confidence intervals, for all women combined and for each subgroup of interest. The primary outcomes are gestational weight gain and composite adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The difference in effects between subgroups will be estimated and between-study heterogeneity suitably quantified and explored. The potential for publication bias and availability bias in the IPD obtained will be investigated. We will conduct a model-based economic evaluation to assess the cost effectiveness of the interventions to manage weight gain in pregnancy and undertake a value of information analysis to inform future research.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013003804.
    Systematic reviews. 11/2014; 3(1):131.

Full-text

Download
1 Download
Available from