Traumatic Rupture of the Diaphragm

Servicio de Cirugía Torácica, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, España.
Archivos de Bronconeumología (Impact Factor: 1.82). 04/2008; 44(4):197-203. DOI: 10.1016/S1579-2129(09)60016-1
Source: PubMed


Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm (TRD) is a rare occurrence, with variable morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze cases of TRD in a tertiary hospital and assess prognostic factors associated with mortality.
A retrospective study was performed of patients diagnosed with TRD in Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain, between 1969 and 2006. The following variables were analyzed: sex, age, cause, diagnosis, associated lesions, surgical procedure, side and size of the lesion, visceral herniation, and postoperative morbidity and mortality.
The study group comprised 132 patients (105 men, 79.5%) with a mean (SD) age of 39.64 (17.04) years. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of TRD. Rupture involved the left hemidiaphragm in 96 cases (72.7%), and 113 patients (85.6%) had associated lesions, most often affecting the abdomen. Thoracotomy was performed in 83 cases (62.9%) and laparotomy in 41 (31.1%). Visceral herniation was reported in 90 patients (68.3%), most often involving the stomach. The rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality were 62.8% and 20.5%, respectively. Diagnostic delay and the presence of morbidity and serious associated lesions all had a statistically significant impact on mortality (P< .05). In the case of serious associated lesions, the odds ratio was 2.898 (95% confidence interval, 1.018-8.250) and for perioperative morbidity it was 1.488 (95% confidence interval, 1.231-1.798).
TRD is an infrequent occurrence in young men, is generally caused by traffic accidents, and is more common on the left side. Associated lesions are present in most cases and represent the main prognostic factor affecting morbidity and mortality. TRD can be considered a relative surgical emergency when not accompanied by other lesions that in themselves constitute surgical emergencies.

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    • "Specificity and sensitivity for diaphragmatic rupture by thoracoscopy are almost 100%, and thoracoscopy is used for restoration of the diaphragm as well. However, it can only be used in patients with stable vital signs [13]. In this study, thoracoscopy was used in 2 cases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm is an unusual type of trauma. In addition, it is difficult to diagnose because it can be accompanied by injuries to other organs. If it is not detected early, the mortality rate can increase due to serious complications. Diaphragmatic rupture is an important indicator of the severity of the trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the incidence of complications and mortality in patients who had surgery to treat traumatic rupture of the diaphragm. The subjects were patients who had undergone a diaphragmatic rupture by blunt trauma or stab wounds except patients who were transferred to other hospitals within 3 days of hospitalization, from January 2000 to December 2007. This study was a retrospective study. 43 patients were hospitalized, and 40 patients were included during the study period. Among them, 28 were male, 12 were female, and the average age was 42 (from 18 to 80). Outcome predictive factors including hypoxia, ventilator application days, revised trauma score (RTS), injury severity score (ISS), age, herniated organs, complications, and the mortality rate were investigated. Causes of trauma included motor vehicle crashes for 20 patients (50%), falls for 10 (25%), stab wounds for 8 (20%), and agricultural machinery accidents for 2 (5%). Most of the patients (36 patients; 90%) had wound sites on the left. Diagnosis was performed within 12 hours for most patients. The diaphragmatic rupture was diagnosed preoperatively in 27 patients (70%) and in 12 patients (30%) during other surgeries. For surgical treatment, thoracotomy was performed in 14 patients (35%), laparotomy in 11 (27.5%), and a surgery combining thoracotomy and laparotomy in 15 patients (37.5%). Herniated organs in the thoracic cavity included the stomach for 23 patients (57.5%), the omentum for 15 patients (37.5%), the colon for 10 patients (25%), and the spleen for 6 patients (15%). Accompanying surgeries included splenectomy for 13 patients (32.5%), lung suture for 6 patients (15%), and liver suture for 5 patients (12.5%). The average hospital stay was 47.80±56.72 days, and the period of ventilation was 3.90±5.8 days. The average ISS was 35.90±16.81 (11~75), and the average RTS was 6.46±1.88 (1.02~7.84). The mortality rate was 17.5% (7 patients). Factors affecting complications were stomach hernia and age. Factors affecting the mortality rate were ISS and RTS. There are no typical symptoms of the traumatic rupture of the diaphragm by blunt trauma. Nor are there any special methods of diagnosis; in fact, it is difficult to diagnose because it accompanies injuries to other organs. Stab wounds are also not easy to diagnose, though they are relatively easy to diagnose compared to blunt trauma because the accompanying injuries are more limited. Suture of the diaphragm can be performed through the chest, the abdomen, or the thoracoabdomen. These surgical methods are chosen based on accompanying organ injuries. When there are many organ injuries, there are a great number of complications. Significant factors affecting the complication rate were stomach hernia and age. ISS and RTS were significant as factors affecting the mortality rate. In the case of severe trauma such as pelvic fractures, frequent physical examinations and chest X-rays are necessary to confirm traumatic rupture of the diaphragm because it does not have specific symptoms, and there are no clear diagnosis methods. Complications and the mortality rate should be reduced with early diagnosis and with treatment by confirming diaphragmatic rupture in the thoracic cavity and the abdomen during surgery.
    Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2011; 44(5):348-54. DOI:10.5090/kjtcs.2011.44.5.348
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    • "Blunt diaphragmatic rupture (BDR) is a relatively rare injury and occurs in 0.8% to 7% of all thorocoabdominal blunt trauma [1] [2] [3]. A sudden increase in abdominal pressure after blunt trauma may shear the membranous or muscular part of the diaphragm inducing diaphragmatic rupture and abdominal visceral herniation [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed diagnosis of blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (BDR) is not uncommon in the emergency department (ED) despite improvement in investigative techniques. We reviewed a large case series of patients diagnosed with blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture in order to report demographics, clinical features, and mechanisms of injury of this important but challenging entity. From January 2001 through December 2009, 43 patients were diagnosed with BDR at Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Demographic data, including sex, age, initial hemodynamic parameters, laboratory data, diagnostic imaging, trauma mechanism, injury location, associated injuries, injury severity score (ISS), time to diagnosis, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), hospital length of stay (hospital LOS), and mortality, were extracted from hospital records. A total of 43 patients (34 men; 9 women) with BDR were analyzed. Their median age was 37 years (15-82 yrs). Most of these injuries were related to traffic collision (76.8%). The anatomic location of injury to the diaphragm consisted of 24 left-sided (55.8%), 14 right-sided (32.6%),and 5 bilateral diaphragmatic injuries. (11.6%) Hemopneumothorax was the most common associated injury (37.2%). The median diagnostic time was 8 hours (range 2 to 366 hrs). The median ISS score was 18 (range 9 to 41). The median ICU LOS was 4 days (range 0 to 99 ds) and the median HLOS was 19 days (range 1 to 106ds). The total mortality rate was 9.3%. Initial high ISS, initial shock and bilateral diaphragmatic injury significantly increased mortality. BDR constitutes a rare entity in thoracoabdominal trauma and most of these injuries were related to traffic collision. High index of suspicion was still the main factor to early diagnosis of this case. The mortality was related to initial shock , bilateral BDR and high ISS. Proper initial resuscitation and correction of other serious injuries may be more life-saving in patients with BDR.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 06/2011; 30(6):919-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2011.03.014 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture is uncommon, but requires a prompt diagnosis and repair. Diaphragmatic injury is most commonly associated with automobile accidents. The diagnosis is difficult and may be delayed because there are no specific symptoms, signs, or radiographic studies that are pathognomic for diaphragmatic injury. The most important factor in the diagnosis is a high suspicion and the use of proper diagnostic studies. We report a case involving the delayed presentation of diaphragmatic rupture in a 54 year old man, requiring surgical repair 12 days following multiple blunt trauma. It should be noted that early recognition for diaphragmatic injury is important in patients with multiple trauma to avoid the potential fatal complications.
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 03/2009; 66(3). DOI:10.4046/trd.2009.66.3.241
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