Sinus augmentation using human mesenchymal stem cells loaded into a beta-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite scaffold.
ABSTRACT Implant placement in the posterior maxilla may often be contraindicated because of insufficient bone volume and presence of the maxillary sinus. In these situations, sinus floor augmentation frequently has been proposed as the best treatment. This clinical study was based on the hypothesis that the clinical effectiveness of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) loaded to the biphasic scaffold.
In this report, the clinical and radiographic results are presented on 6 consecutively treated patients using MSCs in combination with biphasic hydroxyl apatite/ beta-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) for sinus elevation. All the patients in the study had less than 3 mm initial bone height in the posterior maxillary area (IBH). MSCs were cultured and expanded from bone marrow aspirate for each patient. Three months after sinus elevation, radiographic evaluation was performed for the patients and the secondary bone height was measured (SBH(1)). In the second stage surgery, 30 implants were placed. Trephine bur was used as a pilot drill and a core biopsy was obtained from each implant site. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the patients was performed after 4 months. Secondary bone height was measured 9 months after implant placement (SBH(2)).
Of 30 implants, 28 (93%) were considered clinically successful. Two implants were removed due to mobility at the time of surgical exposure. Histologic evaluation of the biopsy specimens revealed numerous areas of osteoid and bone formation HA/TCP, with no evidence of inflammatory cell infiltrate. Mean bone regenerate was 41.34%. Clinically, no complications were observed, and all implants were considered clinically osseointegrated after 4 months. Mean bone height was measured 3 and 12 months after sinus grafting (mean of SBH(1)= 12.08 mm and mean of SBH(2)= 10.08 mm).
These clinical and histological findings suggest that sinus grafting with HA/TCP in combination with MSCs provide a viable therapeutic alternative for implant placement. The findings suggest that the addition of MSCs to bone derivative/substitute materials may enhance bone formation in the maxillary sinus area. Of course more studies with the control groups are needed for the evaluation of this method as a clinical solution for the patients.
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ABSTRACT: Due to shortcomings associated with autogenous bone graft, the gold standard of craniofacial grafting, investigators seek alternatives that are accessible, efficient, and affordable. Accordingly, in the present pilot study, bone regeneration was induced using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) loaded onto freeze-dried mineral bone block (FDMBB) in the presence or absence of recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rh PDGF-BB). Eight weeks after the bilateral extraction of premolars of four mongrel dogs, 25 × 10 mm defects were created at both sides of the mandible. The right mandible received autogenous-BMSC loaded on FDMBB (MSC group), whereas the left mandible received cellular blocks impregnated with rhPDGF-BB (MSC + PDGF Group). Animals were euthanized 8 weeks after grafting. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated higher levels of bone formation for the test group (10.34% ± 0.20 and 26.63% ± 3.14, respectively) when compared to the control group (8.20% ± 0.20 and 21.38% ± 5.11). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). According to the performed micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis, adding 0.5 mg rhPDGF-BB (0.3 mg/mL) to the combination of BMSC/FDMBB did not significantly increase bone formation in supracrestal defect in dog mandible. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 04/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are primitive cells capable of restoring damaged mesenchyme and with the ability to differentiate into mature cells of bone, cartilage, muscle, fat, nerve or fibrous tissues. MSCs are therefore good candidates for applications in regenerative medicine and cell based therapy. They regenerate through self-renewal, differentiational capacity, immune modulation and secretion of bioactive molecules. Authors present a review of MSCs applications in otorhinolaryngology. The major interest is focused on phonosurgery, sensorineural deafness and reconstruction of large tissue defects with bone, cartilage or soft tissue replacement. Current evidence of MSCs treatment efficacy in otorhinolaryngology is based on animal models. The true impact on clinical treatment will not be known until clinical studies prove functional outcomes in human medicine.Medical Hypotheses 03/2014; 82(6):769-773. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to review de literature about the role of mesenchymal stem cells in bone regenerative procedures in oral implantology, specifically, in the time require to promote bone regeneration. A bibliographic search was carried out in PUBMED with a combination of different key words. Animal and human studies that assessed histomorphometrically the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration procedures in oral implantology surgeries were examined. Reults: - Alveolar regeneration: Different controlled histomorphometric animal studies showed that bone regeneration is faster using stem cells seeded in scaffolds than using scaffolds or platelet rich plasma alone. Human studies revealed that stem cells increase bone regeneration. - Maxillary sinus lift: Controlled studies in animals and in humans showed higher bone regeneration applying stem cells compared with controls. - Periimplantary bone regeneration and alveolar distraction: Studies in animals showed higher regeneration when stem cells are used. In humans, no evidence of applying mesenchymal stem cells in these regeneration procedures was found. Stem cells may promote bone regeneration and be useful in bone regenerative procedures in oral implantology, but no firm conclusions can be drawn from the rather limited clinical studies so far performed. Key words:Mesenchymal stem cells, bone regeneration, dental implants, oral surgery, tissue engineering.Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry. 02/2014; 6(1):e60-e65.