Genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from waterfowl in southern part of South Korea in 2006.
ABSTRACT Aquatic birds are a reservoir of all known influenza A viruses. Avian influenza viruses have played a major role in the creation of pandemic influenza viruses in humans. In this study, we genetically characterized genes of nine isolates from waterfowl in Eulsukdo, a congregating place for migratory birds on the flyway of migration from Siberia, which is located in the southern part of South Korea. Phylogenic analysis showed that HA and NA genes of isolates belonged to Eurasian lineage, and lineage analysis showed that NS, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of isolates clustered with Eurasian lineage, and PB2 genes of isolates belonged to North American or Eurasian lineage. Results suggest that the interregional transmission of genes of avian influenza viruses may occur in the migratory birds.
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ABSTRACT: PB1-F2 is a major virulence factor of influenza A. This protein is a product of an alternative reading frame in the PB1-encoding RNA segment 2. Its presence of is dictated by the presence or absence of premature stop codons. This virulence factor is present in every influenza pandemic and major epidemic of the 20th century. Absence of PB1-F2 is associated with mild disease, such as the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu"). The analysis of 8608 segment 2 sequences showed that only 8.5% have been annotated for the presence of PB1-F2. Our analysis indicates that 75% of segment 2 sequences are likely to encode PB1-F2. Two major populations of PB1-F2 are of lengths 90 and 57 while minor populations include lengths 52, 63, 79, 81, 87, and 101. Additional possible populations include the lengths of 59, 69, 81, 95, and 106. Previously described sequences include only lengths 57, 87, and 90. We observed substantial variation in PB1-F2 sequences where certain variants show up to 35% difference to well-defined reference sequences. Therefore this dataset indicates that there are many more variants that need to be functionally characterized. Our web-accessible tool PB1-F2 Finder enables scanning of influenza sequences for potential PB1-F2 protein products. It provides an initial screen and annotation of PB1-F2 products. It is accessible at http://cvc.dfci.harvard.edu/pb1-f2.BMC Bioinformatics 11/2011; 12 Suppl 13:S6. · 2.75 Impact Factor