Article

Stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha is cardioprotective after myocardial infarction

Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 05/2008; 117(17):2224-31. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.694992
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heart disease is a leading cause of mortality throughout the world. Tissue damage from vascular occlusive events results in the replacement of contractile myocardium by nonfunctional scar tissue. The potential of new technologies to regenerate damaged myocardium is significant, although cell-based therapies must overcome several technical barriers. One possible cell-independent alternative is the direct administration of small proteins to damaged myocardium.
Here we show that the secreted signaling protein stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), which activates the cell-survival factor protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) via the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, protected tissue after an acute ischemic event in mice and activated Akt within endothelial cells and myocytes of the heart. Significantly better cardiac function than in control mice was evident as early as 24 hours after infarction as well as at 3, 14, and 28 days after infarction. Prolonged survival of hypoxic myocardium was followed by an increase in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor protein and neoangiogenesis. Consistent with improved cardiac function, mice exposed to SDF-1alpha demonstrated significantly decreased scar formation than control mice.
These findings suggest that SDF-1alpha may serve a tissue-protective and regenerative role for solid organs suffering a hypoxic insult.

0 Followers
 · 
107 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that systemic delivery of the natural fragment of TyRS, mini-TyrRS, improves heart function in mice after myocardial infarction. This improvement is associated with reduced formation of scar tissue, increased angiogenesis of cardiac capillaries, recruitment of c-kitpos cells and proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. This work demonstrates that mini-TyrRS has beneficial effects on cardiac repair and regeneration and offers support for the notion that elucidation of the ever expanding repertoire of noncanonical functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases offers unique opportunities for development of novel therapeutics.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109325. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109325 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The breakthrough of reprogramming human somatic cells was achieved in 2006 by the work of Yamanaka and Takahashi. From this point, fibroblasts are the most commonly used primary somatic cell type for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Various characteristics of fibroblasts supported their utilization for the groundbreaking experiments of iPSC generation. One major advantage is the high availability of fibroblasts which can be easily isolated from skin biopsies. Furthermore, their cultivation, propagation, and cryoconservation properties are uncomplicated with respect to nutritional requirements and viability in culture. However, the required skin biopsy remains an invasive approach, representing a major drawback for using fibroblasts as the starting material. More and more studies appeared over the last years, describing the reprogramming of other human somatic cell types. Cells isolated from blood samples or urine, as well as more unexpected cell types, like pancreatic islet beta cells, synovial cells, or mesenchymal stromal cells from wisdom teeth, show promising characteristics for a reprogramming strategy. Here, we want to highlight the advantages of keratinocytes from human plucked hair as a widely usable, noninvasive harvesting method for primary material in comparison with other commonly used cell types.
    01/2014; 2014:768391. DOI:10.1155/2014/768391
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mammalian organism possesses a hierarchy of naturally evolved protective mechanisms against ischemic myocardial injury at the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. These mechanisms comprise regional protective processes, including upregulation and secretion of paracrine cell-survival factors, inflammation, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and resident stem cell-based cardiomyocyte regeneration. There are also interactive protective processes between the injured heart, circulation, and selected remote organs, defined as trans-system protective mechanisms, including upregulation and secretion of endocrine cell-survival factors from the liver and adipose tissue as well as mobilization of bone marrow, splenic, and hepatic cells to the injury site to mediate myocardial protection and repair. The injured heart and activated remote organs exploit molecular and cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, mobilization, and/or extracellular matrix production, to establish protective mechanisms. Both regional and trans-system cardioprotective mechanisms are mediated by paracrine and endocrine messengers and act in coordination and synergy to maximize the protective effect, minimize myocardial infarction, and improve myocardial function, ensuring the survival and timely repair of the injured heart. The concept of the trans-system protective mechanisms may be generalized to other organ systems-injury in one organ may initiate regional as well as trans-system protective responses, thereby minimizing injury and ensuring the survival of the entire organism. Selected trans-system processes may serve as core protective mechanisms that can be exploited by selected organs in injury. These naturally evolved protective mechanisms are the foundation for developing protective strategies for myocardial infarction and injury-induced disorders in other organ systems. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 167-192, 2015.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
48 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014

Similar Publications