Impact of metformin versus repaglinide on non-glycaemic cardiovascular risk markers related to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), biomarkers reflecting inflammation and endothelial dysfunction have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers) and metabolic regulation. In T2DM patients, metformin and insulin secretagogues have demonstrated equal anti-hyperglycaemic potency. Here, we report the effect of metformin versus an insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, on CVD biomarkers in non-obese T2DM patients.
Single-centre, double-masked, double-dummy, crossover study during 2x4 months involving 96 non-obese (body mass index< or =27 kg/m(2)) insulin-naïve T2DM patients. At enrolment, previous oral hypoglycaemic agents were stopped and the patients entered a 1-month run-in on diet-only treatment. Hereafter, patients were randomized to either 2 mg repaglinide thrice daily followed by 1 g metformin twice daily or vice versa each during 4 months with a 1-month washout between interventions.
Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen, von Willebrand factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble E-selectin were significantly lower during metformin versus repaglinide treatments. In contrast, Amadori albumin and heart rate were higher during metformin versus repaglinide. Levels of interleukin-6, fibrinogen, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, asymmetric dimethylarginine and advanced glycation end products as well as glycaemic levels (previously reported) and 24-h blood pressure were similar between treatments. Adjustment for known macrovascular disease did not affect the between-treatment effects.
In non-obese T2DM patients, metformin was more effective in reducing selected biomarkers reflecting inflammation and endothelial dysfunction compared with repaglinide despite similar glycaemic levels between treatments.
Article: Glycemic control prevents microvascular remodeling and increased tone in type 2 diabetes: link to endothelin-1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Medial thickening and vascular hypertrophy of resistance arteries can lead to cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. While previous studies have established a role of type 1 diabetes in vascular remodeling, we recently extended these observations to type 2 diabetes and reported increased collagen deposition due to alterations in matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity in mesenteric resistance arteries. These studies also showed that remodeling response was mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1) via activation of ET(A) receptors, whereas blockade of ET(B) receptors exacerbated the remodeling. However, the effectiveness of glycemic control strategies in preventing these vascular changes, including activation of the ET system still remained unclear. Also, very little is known about whether and to what extent reorganization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects vascular compliance and vasomotor tone. Accordingly, this study assessed structural remodeling of mesenteric microvessels, vascular compliance, and myogenic tone, as well as the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in mediating these processes. Spontaneously diabetic, non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model for type 2 diabetes, and normoglycemic Wistar rats were used for the studies. A subset of GK rats were administered metformin to achieve euglycemia. Glycemic control normalized the increased media-to-lumen ratios (M/L) and myogenic tone seen in diabetes, as well as normalizing plasma ET-1 levels and mesenteric ET(A) receptor expression. There was increased collagen synthesis in diabetes paralleled by decreased collagenase MMP-13 activity, while glycemic control attenuated the process. These findings and our previous study taken together suggest that hyperglycemia-mediated activation of ET-1 and ET(A) receptors alter vascular structure and mechanics in type 2 diabetes.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 02/2009; 296(4):R952-9. · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: The complexities of obesity and diabetes with the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal malignant diseases with the worst prognosis. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Many risk factors have been associated with PC. Interestingly, large numbers of epidemiological studies suggest that obesity and diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes, are positively associated with increased risk of PC. Similarly, these chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, and cancer) are also a major public health concern. In the U.S. population, 50 percent are overweight, 30 percent are medically obese, and 10 percent have diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, obesity and DM have been considered as potential risk factors for cancers; however, the focus of this article is restricted to PC. Although the mechanisms responsible for the development of these chronic diseases leading to the development of PC are not fully understood, the biological importance of the activation of insulin, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathways in insulin resistance mechanism and subsequent induction of compensatory hyperinsulinemia has been proposed. Therefore, targeting insulin/IGF-1 signaling with anti-diabetic drugs for lowering blood insulin levels and reversal of insulin resistance could be useful strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of PC. A large number of studies have demonstrated that the administration of anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones (TZD) class of PPAR-γ agonists decreases the risk of cancers, suggesting that these agents might be useful anti-tumor agents for the treatment of PC. In this review article, we will discuss the potential roles of metformin and TZD anti-diabetic drugs as anti-tumor agents in the context of PC and will further discuss the complexities and the possible roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and PC.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2010; 1815(2):135-46. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The management of T2DM requires aggressive treatment to achieve glycemic and cardiovascular risk factor goals. In this setting, metformin, an old and widely accepted first line agent, stands out not only for its antiglycemic properties but also for its effects beyond glycemic control such as improvements in endothelial dysfunction, hemostasis and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and fat redistribution. These properties may have contributed to the decrease adverse cardiovascular outcomes otherwise not attributable to metformin's mere antihyperglycemic effects. Several other classes of oral antidiabetic agents have been recently introduced, introducing the need to evaluate the role of metformin as initial therapy and in combination with these newer drugs. There is increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies supporting its anti-proliferative role in cancer and possibly a neuroprotective effect. Metformin's negligible risk of hypoglycemia in monotherapy and few drug interactions of clinical relevance give this drug a high safety profile. The tolerability of metformin may be improved by using an appropiate dose titration, starting with low doses, so that side-effects can be minimized or by switching to an extended release form. We reviewed the role of metformin in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and describe the additional benefits beyond its glycemic effect. We also discuss its potential role for a variety of insulin resistant and pre-diabetic states, obesity, metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease, gestational diabetes, cancer, and neuroprotection.Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 02/2013; 5(1):6. · 1.53 Impact Factor