Recruiting and retaining breast cancer survivors into a randomized controlled exercise trial: the Yale Exercise and Survivorship Study.
ABSTRACT Given observational findings that physical activity reduces breast cancer risk, improves survival, and improves quality of life in breast cancer survivors, a need has been identified for randomized controlled trials that test the efficacy of exercise on biological mechanisms associated with breast cancer survival. The primary aims of the Yale Exercise and Survivorship Study were to 1) determine the feasibility of recruiting breast cancer survivors into a randomized controlled trial of the effects of exercise on biological markers and/or mechanisms associated with survival, 2) compare the effectiveness of various recruitment strategies on accrual rates and baseline characteristics, and 3) report adherence to the exercise trial.
Seventy-five postmenopausal breast cancer survivors self-referred into the trial or were recruited through the New Haven Tumor [corrected] Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual-care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 min/wk of supervised gym-based and home-based aerobic exercise for 6 months. The usual-care group was instructed to maintain current physical activity level.
A total of 75 women (an accrual rate of 9.5%) were randomized to the trial. Rates of accrual were higher for women who self-referred into the study (19.8%) compared with women recruited via the cancer registry (7.6%); however, demographic, physiologic, and prognostic characteristics did not differ between the 2 recruitment strategies. On average, exercisers increased moderate- intensity to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise by 129 minutes per week compared with 44 minutes per week among usual-care participants (P < .001). Women in the exercise-intervention group increased their average pedometer steps by 1621 steps per day compared with a decrease of 60 steps per day among women in the usual-care group (P < .01).
Findings from this study will provide useful information for investigators who are conducting exercise trials in cancer populations, clinicians who are treating women diagnosed with breast cancer, and exercise professionals who are developing community-based exercise programs for cancer survivors.
- SourceAvailable from: Ann M Swartz[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code that describes physical activities by major headings (e.g., occupation, transportation, etc.) and specific activities within each major heading with its intensity, defined as the ratio of work metabolic rate to a standard resting metabolic rate (MET). Energy expenditure in MET-minutes, MET-hours, kcal, or kcal per kilogram body weight can be estimated for specific activities by type or MET intensity. Additions to the Compendium were obtained from studies describing daily PA patterns of adults and studies measuring the energy cost of specific physical activities in field settings. The updated version includes two new major headings of volunteer and religious activities, extends the number of specific activities from 477 to 605, and provides updated MET intensity levels for selected activities.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 10/2000; 32(9 Suppl):S498-504. · 4.48 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Individuals treated for cancer often experience higher levels of emotional distress than the general population. Previous research has shown that exercise can have an ameliorating effect on these problems. This 12-month prospective longitudinal study investigated mood, quality of life, cancer-related symptoms, and exercise behavior of 69 women who had completed treatment for Stage 0-2 breast cancer. We studied the natural progression of exercise participation after cancer treatment. Effects on mood, quality of life, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed after controlling for demographic variables, disease variables, social support, and baseline values to test the hypothesis that women who exercised were more likely to report better mood, higher quality of life, and fewer cancer-related symptoms. Results indicated that women did not increase their exercise participation over time and that overall mean minutes of exercise participation were below recommended levels. Baseline demographic predictors of exercise participation included younger age, having a spouse or partner, increased time since diagnosis, higher social support, and higher depression. Exercise participation was associated with improved physical functioning, but not overall mood or cancer-related symptoms. We discuss implications of these findings towards the well-being of breast cancer survivors.Psycho-Oncology 01/2002; 11(5):389-400. · 3.51 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence is accumulating for physical activity as an effective, well-tolerated, highly rewarding complementary behavioral intervention for enhancing quality of life (QOL) as well as fitness among individuals with chronic and even terminal illnesses. However, relatively few studies have examined the feasibility and potential health benefits of supervised, structured exercise programs for sedentary women with primary breast cancer. Forty women over the age of 45 with primary breast cancer participated in a course of group exercise training (GET) delivered in a structured format three times per week for 16 weeks. GET emphasizes physical activities that promote aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. Assessments of fitness/vigor and QOL were conducted prior to, during, and upon completion of the program. Results demonstrated that GET was feasible, safe, and well-tolerated. Moreover, the participants experienced significant health benefits over the course of the intervention in multiple dimensions of fitness/vigor (aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility) as well as QOL (increased positive affect, decreased distress, enhanced well-being, and improved functioning). Discussion highlights the need for inclusion of physical activity programs in comprehensive, complementary treatment regimes for breast cancer patients.Psycho-Oncology 11(5):447-56. · 3.51 Impact Factor