Journal of Biotechnology

Institut für Genomforschung und Systembiologie, Centrum für Biotechnologie, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
Journal of Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 2.87). 04/2008; 136(1-2):22-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.03.004
Source: PubMed


Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is a lipophilic corynebacterial species that lacks in the cell envelope the characteristic alpha-alkyl-beta-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids, designated mycolic acids. We report here the bioinformatic analysis of genome data obtained by pyrosequencing of the type strain C. kroppenstedtii DSM44385 that was initially isolated from human sputum. A single run with the Genome Sequencer FLX system revealed 560,248 shotgun reads with 110,018,974 detected bases that were assembled into a contiguous genomic sequence with a total size of 2,446,804bp. Automatic annotation of the complete genome sequence resulted in the prediction of 2122 coding sequences, of which 29% were considered as specific for C. kroppenstedtii when compared with predicted proteins from hitherto sequenced pathogenic corynebacteria. This comparative content analysis of the genome data revealed a large repertoire of genes involved in sugar uptake and central carbohydrate metabolism and the presence of the mevalonate route for isoprenoid biosynthesis. The lack of mycolic acids and the lipophilic lifestyle of C. kroppenstedtii are apparently caused by gene loss, including a condensase gene cluster, a mycolate reductase gene, and a microbial type I fatty acid synthase gene. A complete beta-oxidation pathway involved in the degradation of fatty acids is present in the genome. Evaluation of the genomic data indicated that lipophilism is the dominant feature involved in pathogenicity of C. kroppenstedtii.

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Available from: Bernd Weisshaar, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "The phylum Actinobacteria accounted for the 21% of screened clones. Surprisingly, most of these sequences showed to be related to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (11.6%), which was isolated from human clinical material and human sputum (Bernard et al., 2002; Tauch et al., 2008) and is nowadays known to be a member of the skin microbiome (Microbiome project, Grice et al., 2009). Moreover, 4.6% of clones display high sequence similarity to uncultured bacterial clones associated with disease flares in children with atopic dermatitis (Kong et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16(th) -20(th) centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls -on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, on bone. Finally, the high concentration of air-borne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Ecology 06/2013; 86(2). DOI:10.1111/1574-6941.12165 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    • "In fact, these were also the first species for which genome sequences became available [6–8]. With the development of high throughput sequencing techniques, to date numerous genome sequences are available including those of Corynebacterium aurimucosum [9], Corynebacterium bovis [10], various C. diphtheriae strains [11–13], C. jeikeium [14], Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii [15], several C. pseudotuberculosis strains [16–24], Corynebacterium resistens [25], two C. ulcerans strains [26], Corynebacterium urealyticum [27], and Corynebacterium variabile [28]. This wealth of genome information now provides a basis for the characterization of corynebacterial cell envelope components and corresponding genes both on the whole cell level by global analysis techniques (genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) and on a molecular level by specific approaches. "
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    ABSTRACT: To date the genus Corynebacterium comprises 88 species. More than half of these are connected to human and animal infections, with the most prominent member of the pathogenic species being Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which is also the type species of the genus. Corynebacterium species are characterized by a complex cell wall architecture: the plasma membrane of these bacteria is followed by a peptidoglycan layer, which itself is covalently linked to a polymer of arabinogalactan. Bound to this, an outer layer of mycolic acids is found which is functionally equivalent to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As final layer, free polysaccharides, glycolipids, and proteins are found. The composition of the different substructures of the corynebacterial cell envelope and their influence on pathogenicity are discussed in this paper.
    01/2013; 2013(5):935736. DOI:10.1155/2013/935736
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    • "Two striking characteristics of C. kroppenstedtii are the absence of mycolic acids in the cell wall (due to the losses of a condensase gene cluster and a mycolate reductase gene) and a lipophilic phenotype (due to the absence of a microbial type I fatty acid synthase gene) [89]. Therefore, the transitional phylogenomic position of C. kroppenstedtii between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic species was in agreement with the lack of important virulence genes and the low pathogenic potential characteristic of C. kroppenstedtii [89]–[91]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs). With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis strains.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53818. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0053818 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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