Adelmidrol, a palmitoylethanolamide analogue, reduces chronic inflammation in a carrageenin-granuloma model in rats.
ABSTRACT Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and some of its analogues have shown great efficacy in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Adelmidrol - the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) of the di-amide derivative of azelaic acid - is one of these analogues. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of PEA and adelmidrol are hypothesized to be mediated, at least in part, by mast cell down-modulation. Mast cell mediators released at early stage of the inflammatory process drive the inflammatory reaction to chronicity as it happens in X-carrageenin-induced granulomatous tissue formation. In the present study, the choice of testing adelmidrol depends upon the physicochemical properties of the compound, i.e. the amphipatic feature, that make it more easily soluble than PEA. In this study, we investigated the effect of adelmidrol on granuloma formation induced by lambda-carrageenin-soaked sponge implant in rats. Our results show that the local administration of the compound under study significantly decreases weight and neo-angiogenesis in granulomatous tissue. The anti-inflammatory effect was due to the modulation of mast cells degranulation, as shown by histological analysis and by the inhibition of the release of several pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic enzymes (e.g. iNOS, chymase and metalloproteinase MMP-9), and mediators (e.g. nitric oxide and TNF-alpha). The results indicate that adelmidrol, given locally, may represent a potential therapeutic tool in controlling chronic inflammation.
Article: Palmitoylethanolamide reduces granuloma-induced hyperalgesia by modulation of mast cell activation in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to obtain evidences of a possible analgesic role for palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in chronic granulomatous inflammation sustained by mast cell (MC) activation in rats at 96 hours. PEA (200-400-800 μg/mL), locally administered at time 0, reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the expression and release of NGF in comparison with saline-treated controls. PEA prevented nerve formation and sprouting, as shown by histological analysis, reduced mechanical allodynia, evaluated by Von Frey filaments, and inhibited dorsal root ganglia activation. These results were supported by the evidence that MCs in granuloma were mainly degranulated and closely localized near nerve fibres and PEA significantly reduced MC degranulation and nerves fibre formation. These findings are the first evidence that PEA, by the modulation of MC activation, controls pain perception in an animal model of chronic inflammation, suggesting its potential use for the treatment of all those painful conditions in which MC activation is an initial key step.Molecular Pain 01/2011; 7:3. · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: The association of N-palmitoylethanolamine with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 impairs melanoma growth through a supra-additive action.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The incidence of melanoma is considerably increasing worldwide. Frequent failing of classical treatments led to development of novel therapeutic strategies aiming at managing advanced forms of this skin cancer. Additionally, the implication of the endocannabinoid system in malignancy is actively investigated. We investigated the cytotoxicity of endocannabinoids and their hydrolysis inhibitors on the murine B16 melanoma cell line using a MTT test. Enzyme and receptor expression was measured by RT-PCR and enzymatic degradation of endocannabinoids using radiolabeled substrates. Cell death was assessed by Annexin-V/Propidium iodine staining. Tumors were induced in C57BL/6 mice by s.c. flank injection of B16 melanoma cells. Mice were injected i.p. for six days with vehicle or treatment, and tumor size was measured each day and weighted at the end of the treatment. Haematoxylin-Eosin staining and TUNEL assay were performed to quantify necrosis and apoptosis in the tumor and endocannabinoid levels were quantified by HPLC-MS. Tube formation assay and CD31 immunostaining were used to evaluate the antiangiogenic effects of the treatments. The N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol and N- palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) reduced viability of B16 cells. The association of PEA with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 considerably reduced cell viability consequently to an inhibition of PEA hydrolysis and an increase of PEA levels. The increase of cell death observed with this combination of molecules was confirmed in vivo where only co-treatment with both PEA and URB597 led to decreased melanoma progression. The antiproliferative action of the treatment was associated with an elevation of PEA levels and larger necrotic regions in the tumor. This study suggests the interest of targeting the endocannabinoid system in the management of skin cancer and underlines the advantage of associating endocannabinoids with enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors. This may contribute to the improvement of long-term palliation or cure of melanoma.BMC Cancer 03/2012; 12:92. · 3.01 Impact Factor