Structural and biochemical properties of lipid particles from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT The two most prominent neutral lipids of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, triacylglycerols (TAG) and steryl esters (SE), are synthesized by the two TAG synthases Dga1p and Lro1p and the two SE synthases Are1p and Are2p. In this study, we made use of a set of triple mutants with only one of these acyltransferases active to elucidate the contribution of each single enzyme to lipid particle (LP)/droplet formation. Depending on the remaining acyltransferases, LP from triple mutants contained only TAG or SE, respectively, with specific patterns of fatty acids and sterols. Biophysical investigations, however, revealed that individual neutral lipids strongly affected the internal structure of LP. SE form several ordered shells below the surface phospholipid monolayer of LP, whereas TAG are more or less randomly packed in the center of the LP. We propose that this structural arrangement of neutral lipids in LP may be important for their physiological role especially with respect to mobilization of TAG and SE reserves.
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ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and only committed step of triacylglycerol synthesis. DGAT activity is rate limiting for triacylglycerol accumulation in mammals, plants and microbes. DGATs belong to three different evolutionary classes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DGAT1, encoded by At2g19450, is the major DGAT enzyme involved in triacylglycerol accumulation in seeds. Until recently, the function of DGAT2 (At3g51520) has remained elusive. Previous attempts to characterize its enzymatic function by heterologous expression in yeast were unsuccessful. In the present report we demonstrate that expression of a codon-optimized version of the DGAT2 gene is able to restore neutral lipid accumulation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain (H1246), which is defective in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of codon-optimized DGAT2 and DGAT1 induced the biogenesis of subcellular lipid droplets containing triacylglycerols and squalene. Both DGAT proteins were found to be associated with these lipid droplets. The fatty acid composition was affected by the nature of the acyltransferase expressed. DGAT2 preferentially incorporated C16:1 fatty acids whereas DGAT1 displayed preference for C16:0, strongly suggesting that these enzymes have contrasting substrate specificities.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92237. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biosynthesis and storage of non-polar lipids such as triacylglycerols and steryl esters have gained much interest during the last decades because defects in these processes are related to severe human diseases. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a valuable tool to study eukaryotic lipid metabolism because this single cell microorganism harbors many enzymes and pathways with counterparts in mammalian cells. In this article we will review aspects of triacylglycerol and steryl ester metabolism and turnover in the yeast which have been known for a long time, and combine them with new perceptions of non-polar lipid research. We will provide a detailed insight into the mechanisms of non-polar lipid synthesis, storage, mobilization and degradation in the yeast S. cerevisiae. The central role of lipid droplets in these processes will be addressed with emphasis on the prevailing view that this compartment is more than only a depot for triacylglycerols and steryl esters. Dynamic and interactive aspects of lipid droplets with other organelles will be discussed. Results obtained with S. cerevisiae will be complemented by recent investigations of non-polar lipid research with Yarrowia lipolytica and Pichia pastoris. Altogether, this review article provides a comprehensive view of non-polar lipid research in yeast. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEMS microbiology reviews 03/2014; · 10.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae two alcohol acetyltransferases (AATases), Atf1 and Atf2, condense short chain alcohols with acetyl-CoA to produce volatile acetate esters. Such esters are, in large part, responsible for the distinctive flavors and aromas of fermented beverages including beer, wine, and sake. Atf1 and Atf2 localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Atf1 is known to localize to lipid droplets (LDs). The mechanism and function of these localizations are unknown. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms of Atf1 and Atf2 membrane association. Segments of the N- and C-terminal domains of Atf1 (residues 24-41 and 508-525, respectively) are predicted to be amphipathic helices. Truncations of these helices revealed that the terminal domains are essential for ER and LD association. Moreover, mutations of the basic or hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal helix and hydrophobic residues in the C-terminal helix disrupted ER association and subsequent sorting from the ER to LDs. Similar amphipathic helices are found at both ends of Atf2, enabling ER and LD association. As was the case with Atf1, mutations to the N- and C-terminal helices of Atf2 prevented membrane association. Sequence comparison of the AATases from Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces yeast (K. lactis and P. anomala) and fruits species (C. melo and S. lycopersicum) showed that only AATases from Saccharomyces evolved terminal amphipathic helices. Heterologous expression of these orthologs in S. cerevisiae revealed that the absence of terminal amphipathic helices eliminates LD association. Combined, the results of this study suggest a common mechanism of membrane association for AATases via dual N- and C-terminal amphipathic helices.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104141. · 3.53 Impact Factor